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Report Contents

Preface Chapter 1A Chapter 1B Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
List of Tables List of Figures

State of Environment Report 2001 - 2006/7

Chief Editor, Prof. Dr. Temel Oguz, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Turkey

Preface

State of Enviremnet of the Black Sea - 2009

Citing

© 2008, Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution

ISBN 978-9944-245-33-3

For bibliographic purposes this document may be cited as:

BSC, 2008. State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2001 - 2006/7). Edited by Temel Oguz. Publications of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC) 2008-3, Istanbul, Turkey, 448 pp.

This document has been prepared with the financial assistance of the European Union.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution nor of the European Union concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the stated policy of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution nor of the European Union, nor does citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.

This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source.

No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the Permanent Secretariat of the Black Sea Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution.

Cover design: Nilufer Akpinar

Cover images: Photos of Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata by Ahmet E. Kideys; Satellite images are from EC-Joint Research Centre, Global Environment Monitoring Unit Ocean Colour Archive, http://oceancolour.jrc.ec.europa.eu/; as presented in Fig. 2.4.8a of this report.

Published by Referans Çeviri Hizmetleri, Yazýlým ve Yayýncýlýk Ltd. on behalf of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution. Printing and binding: Artus Basým Tel: (0212) 289 88 80

Preface and Acknowledgements

More than 60 prominent scientists working on the Black Sea ecosystem have contributed to this report. Despite this is the most comprehensive report on the State of Environment of the Black Sea for the period 2001-2007, limitation in the systematically collected data and indicators, makes a conclusive inference difficult on the real state of the ecosystem of this sea.

Chapter 1, within two sub-chapters, presents introductory information on the Black Sea physico-chemical characteristics and geology/history. Chapter 2 deals with one of the most important problems of the Black Sea, the Eutrophication. Chapter 3, dealing with Chemical Pollution, has several subchapters of different pollutant groups. Radioactive pollution is dealt in Capter 4. States of phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrophytobenthos, zoobenthos are presented in Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The fisheries is the subject of Chapter 9 and mammals of Chapter 11. Socio-economic pressures and impacts are included in Chapter 11. The overall assessment of the report summarizing all these issues is given in Chapter 12.

Contributions to Chapter 4 were provided with partial support from the International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 for "Marine Environmental Assessment in the Black Sea Region.

Thanks to UNDP/GEF BSERP Project personnel and earlier Permanent Secretariat staff for their support at the initial stages of the preparation of this report, all authors and especially to the chief editor Prof Temel Oguz for their scientific contributions, to the Advisory Group members of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution for their comments, Mr Kiril Iliev for formatting, Ms Nilufer Akpınar for preparing for printing and all other organizations and people who kindly provided data, information and other input. Special thanks go to Dr Violeta Velikova, not only for her personal scientific contribution in the entire report, but also for her organizational and thorough efforts making compilation of this comprehensive report possible.?

Prof Ahmet E. Kideys

Executive Director

Permanent Secretariat

Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution

Dolmabahce Sarayı, 2. Hareket Koşku,

34353 Beşiktaş, İstanbul, Turkey