Approach 1: Direct removal of ML or beach/marine cleanup. This is expensive, laborious and only locally applicable approach.
Approach 2: Policy responses to the marine and coastal pollution. Potentially the most effective activity, via legislation and economic instruments development:
· policy measures to be developed and implemented to aid in preventing, controlling and reducing the ML problem in the marine and coastal areas;
· target specific responsibility groups, such as authorities, business, scientists, NGOs, etc.
Approach 3: Public education and awareness raising campaigns directed towards different target groups and aimed to build “responsible” behaviour. This will have long-term effect.
Title of proposal:
Elaboration of Coastal and marine waste management strategy(ies) and action plan(s).
· clear definition and separation of responsibilities, authorities and resources needful for management/control of ML pollution and implementation of cleanup activities;
· development and implementation of innovative
policy approaches and practical measures to aid in preventing, controlling and
reducing of litter pollution in
· target and involve in specific anti-ML activities the responsibility groups (such as the source industries, environmental NGOs, national and local authorities, research institutions, etc.).
· detailed analysis of current constraints and opportunities of institutional and legislative/ regulatory framework for the management and the most adequate policy measures to confine the beach littering;
· incorporation of the coastal and marine waste management strategy(ies) in the coastal zone management plans (or other relevant plans and programs);
· partnership for ML prevention: voluntary agreement between representatives of major stakeholders to cooperate for the protection of the marine and coastal environment against ML should be developed; waste management strategies and ICZM plans should include ML items and involve concerned groups including representatives of central and local authorities; source industries, environmental NGOs and research institutions;
· introduction of adequate practical tools for the prevention of ML pollution (re-usable packaging, new materials for erosion control, etc.);
· public education and awareness raising campaign should be integral part of the ML strategy.
Potential implementing organisations:
· BMEW (to establish a ML Expert Working group, including representatives of relevant institutions, BMT, BMH, etc.), other authorities, research institutes, NGOs, businessmen.
· Preliminarily estimated cost: €50,000.
· Possible source of funding: BMEW and international donors.
It would be relevant if waste recycling or waste incinerating plants are constructed in the coastal zone. However, taking into account that this is connected with large investments, this can be considered as a program of long-term perspective.
Since the mentioned measures are very costly (and taking into account that payment ability of the population is very low), the most necessary easy measures should be carried out at the existing landfills. The involvement of private sector directly oriented at coastal ML would be most appropriate.
At the first stage of a pilot project, the ML monitoring should be implemented within the framework of some governmental structure or program in order to obtain reliable information on the levels of ML pollution. In parallel to this, it would be useful if the inventory of ML according to its types (municipal, medical, construction, etc.) is carried out.
Also, public awareness and public participation projects, TV programs, booklets, popularisation of garbage bins for society (for teenagers by well known and favourite person with the help of TV advertising rollers) shall be implemented. Educational programs for schools are also very important.
For the addressing ML problem in
Thus, projects that would help to address and solve the ML problem could be as follows:
1) Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ML pollution on the seacoast ($10,000);
2) Improvement of legal and administrative instruments ($5,000);
3) Public awareness raising ($12,000);
of garbage incinerators in Georgian Ports of
5) Installation of dustbins and refuse bins in the recreational areas ($100,000);
6) Construction of small garbage recycling and incinerating plants for municipal waste services ($3,500,000).
Implementing organizations might be various: government, NGOs, private sector; as for source of funding international financial institutions will be necessary for financial support of costly projects (like indicated in 4. 5. and 6), where the government could be co-financier. As for cheaper projects the source of financing should be the government.
The National Standard SR 13493/2004 “Waste
Characterization – Methodology for Household Waste Characterization – ROMECOM”
is implemented in
Title of proposal:
Implementation of the unified methodology of ML
research, monitoring, prevention and decreasing in the
Implementation of the ML Management/Action Plan in the
The results obtained will be based on the same methods, same system for processing ML data and will assure accumulation of the standardized ML information in each country for future activities, such as: the development of ML monitoring methodology, preparation of proposals to prevent and reduce ML, elaboration of ML collecting and processing technologies and devices, development of sustainable ML management.
· elaboration and implementation of a unified standard for ML characterization;
· elaboration and implementation of a unified system for ML monitoring and development of ML database at the local and national level;
· elaboration and implementation of a unified system for developing technical norms for the prevention and reduction of ML pollution;
· elaboration and implementation of a unified system for developing technical norms for ML collecting and processing technologies and devices;
· elaboration of a unified “handbook” for the implementation of ML Management/Action Plan”.
The activities of the project could be performed as:
Phase 1 preparation
of the proposed documents based on the international and national experience;
the documents will be elaborated by a working group with members (national
experts) from all
Phase 2 a “case study” in one city for each country (in cooperation with national and local administration, industrial, social and sanitation companies, research and development institutes, universities, NGOs, etc.);
Phase 3 analysis of the results obtained during the “case studies”; the analysis will take into consideration local features of each city (e.g., number of tourists, different industrial activities, level of industrial activities, municipal prognosis for the future five years, etc.);
Phase 4 preparation
of the National Action/Management Plans on ML in the final form; the Regional
Action Plan on ML should be included in the BS
Phase 5 implementation of the Regional and National Action/Management Plans on ML and monitoring of the results during three years;
Phase 6 analysis of the results after three years and improvement of the Action/ Management Plans on ML. This phase may represent a new project.
Potential implementing organization(s):
· national and local administrations in all
· industrial, social and sanitation companies performing activities in the costal zone;
· research and development institutes;
Preliminarily estimated cost:
€600,000 in total
or €100,000 for each country (including €10,000 for dissemination of the results).
Possible source of funding:
· all municipalities should separate solid waste collected from beaches, keep records of the amounts and work accordingly;
· all ports must establish a waste reception facilities under the Regulation on Reception of Waste from the Ships and Waste Control;
· All beaches should be encouraged and supported to implement a criteria of Blue Flag by the responsible organizations;
· municipalities should separate domestic solid waste in source by collecting recyclable wastes such as glass, plastic, paper, etc. separately;
· research vessels in the
· ML that comes into trawl during fish inventory studies should be separated, weighted and calculated as the amount per area (it is especially important in metropolitan cities and areas close to estuaries);
· adverse effects of ML should be evaluated on the international level;
· ML studies at sea, on the coasts and in the estuaries should be carried out in order to assess the levels of ML pollution on the regional scale;
· a common data bank should be established for the data obtained by the monitoring of ML and its effects at sea, on the seashore and in the rivers;
· stock quarries that have been operated for the coastal highway can be converted into landfill areas.
· all residential areas should contain landfill sites;
· all beaches should be viewed and cleaned regularly;
· in order to raise public awareness, educational activities should be incresed in schools and informative programs for housewifes should be prepared with the support of local TV and newspapers;
· special marine protection areas should be
established in the
· waste from ships should be collected in ports regularly and treated properly;
· ML should be prevented in order to protect marine and coastal species and their habitats;
· monitoring systems such as national and regional observatories should be established in order to ensure the pollution control;
· ‘Coastal Area Management Plans’ should be
developed, the appropriate report for
· study on the open sea, coast and estuary should be monitored and fixed a pollution condition in the Black Sea Region;
· regional strategies on solid waste, medical waste and hazardous waste should be developed and implemented.
Recommendations and proposals submitted by Turkish environmental NGOs could be summarized as follows:
· to raise public awareness on ML issues (especially among students and children, ship and smaller vessels crews), particularly, by means of education and cleanup campaigns, and exhibitions of ML collected due to the coastal, marine and underwater cleanup operations.
restoration of uncontrolled landfills is an urgent task for
· solid waste evacuation to the site should be stopped and a new "landfill site" must be established according to the environmental regulations;
· run off rain water collection and control system should be constructed to control surface run off;
· suitable trees should be planted all over the field to prevent erosion and to improve the aesthetic view;
· a retaining wall should be constructed to provide stability for the rubbish heap and to prevent rubbish mass transportation through the sea;
· a revetment or seawall should be constructed to prevent the retaining wall and landfill from wave effects;
· identification of the composition of solid wastes storaged on the landfill (based on properties of materials) should be carried out;
· monitoring of physicochemical and biological processes inside the landfill and main processes affecting waste volume should be developed;
· to investigate the overall behaviour of the landfill (including geophysical research and biogas measurement);
· recreational studies must be carried out in the landfill site.
Title of proposal:
Celebration of the
During the Celebration of the Black Sea Day (BSD) in
The aim of the International BSD activities could be to
increase public awareness regarding the
To celebrate the BSD as a week. The activities will start
· cleanup campaign,
· press conference,
· panels and receptions,
· TV programmes,
· fishermen seminars,
· preparation of educational materials for students,
· seminar for housewifes,
· new slogan and logo for the BSD,
· publishing special bulletin on ML,
Potential implementing organization(s):
NGO’s from the
Preliminarily estimated cost: $15,000
Possible source of funding: UNEP, BSERP, Ministry’s budget.
Participants of the Special Session on ML within the
15th Meeting of the
· improvement of national waste management policies (to introduce measures to reduce ML pollution into national waste management policies);
· improvement of legal and administrative instruments for ML as a part of national waste management policies (to introduce necessary amendments related to ML into new LBS protocol of the Bucharest Convention);
· development of the regional and national ML assessment and monitoring schemes using common methodologies and assessment criteria (to develop methodologies for monitoring and assessment of floating, submerged and coastal litter; to organize and maintain ML monitoring facilities);
· developing and implementing measures to prevent and reduce ML pollution (to prepare proposals and relevant implementation programs; to construct and improve port reception facilities for garbage; to close down dumping sites and landfills in the coastal water protection zone as defined in national legislation; to address and mitigate ghost fishing);
· raising public awareness and improvement of public education (to prepare awareness and educational tools; to organize public campaigns; to initiate awareness-raising campaign in media; to prepare 'responsible citizenship' guidelines);
· strengthening public/private partnership in combatting ML pollution;
· implementation of the best available technologies in order to collect, process, recycle and dispose ML;
· improvement of professional skills and knowledge on the management of ML (to prepare professional sectorial guidelines; to organize a training for officers involved in ML management).
Special note on the
It could be recommended that the line transect methodology and Distance analysis (Buckland et al., 1993) are applied for further development of ML research and monitoring at sea by means of the vessel-based and aerial surveys conducted over different coastal and offshore areas, preferably on the Black Sea regional scale.
It seems to be reasonable from scientific and economical
points, if the first basin-wide ML survey will be carried out simultaneously