The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
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Report Contents

Preface Dedication Acknowledgements Authors
Executive Summary Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations References
Annexes 1 - 5 Annexes 6 - 9

Marine Litter in the Black Sea Region


Chapter 4 - Programs and Initiatives

Marine Litter Report



So far, there was no Black Sea regional strategy, action plan or basin-wide programme that was specifically directed to address and solve the ML problem. A list of international and regional programmes and projects (1996-2006) which were/are partly or even marginally concerned in Black Sea ML problem is presented as Annex 4.

The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea (BS SAP, 1996, amended in 2002) seems to be the most appropriate instrument that could be supplemented with specific ML items of the regional significance. This document, being a basis for cooperative actions on the conservation and improvement of the Black Sea environment, already includes a series of cognate paragraphs relating to the reduction of pollution from land based sources, vessels and dumping, to the waste management, and to the assessment and monitoring of marine pollution (see Box 4.1 for examples).

Box 4.1. Selected BS SAP articles related to ML problem Article 39. Black Sea states shall take the necessary steps to enable them to fully exercise their prescriptive and enforcement powers, in accordance with international law, in order to pursue the reduction of illegal discharges by vessels into the Black Sea.Article 42. A total ban on the disposal of municipal garbage in marine, shoreline and estuarine areas shall be imposed by December 1996. Each Black Sea state shall develop a plan setting out the manner in which comprehensive enforcement of the ban will be attained by December 1999.Article 43. Illegal dumping operations in the Black Sea are a matter of concern. Black Sea states, individually and jointly, shall take measures to control any dumping activities that may take place.Article 45. Black Sea states shall consider amending the Protocol on Dumping to the Bucharest Convention, in accordance with the London Convention 1972, including its subsequent amendments.Article 46. The Black Sea coastal states will co-operate in developing and implementing environmentally sound waste management policies, giving due consideration to waste minimization, recycling and reuse.Article 53. A “State of Pollution of the Black Sea” report will be prepared and published every five years, beginning in 1996. It will be based on the data collected through the coordinated pollution monitoring and assessment programs.

In 2002, the Black Sea Commission produced a report on the implementation of BS SAP during the period from 1996-2001 ( BSC, 2002). This document includes critical overview of the progress in achievement of the posed objectives and formulates additional actions required for the nearest future. In particular, following difficulties and needs were identified in the report:

· there are evident gaps in knowledge related to the assessment of solid waste problems and their management. The creation of international inspectorate to control illegal discharges into the Black Sea is needed. A feasibility study to identify the scope of illegal discharges and to propose measures for their abatement is recommended;

· a total ban on the disposal of municipal garbage in marine, shoreline and estuarine areas has been imposed in all Black Sea coastal states. However, estimates of illegal disposals are not available; existing information gaps do not allow addressing and assessing the problem on the regional scope. The policy, legislative and regulatory measures for solid waste management are not very effective due to; poorly equipped and staffed national authorities; poor economic status of municipalities to whom these tasks are primarily assigned; lack of effective system for collecting and recycling garbage; and ineffective incinerating facilities. Actions required for the coastal zone: (a) to conduct regional feasibility study on the scope of the municipal solid waste problem which includes the socio-economic implications; (b) to develop and implement regional strategy and action plan on the solid waste management; (c) to develop a set of regionally agreed guidelines and manuals for solid waste management; and (d) to promote innovative technologies on solid waste management;

· the maritime authorities of the Black Sea states, in cooperation with the environmental authorities, are responsible for controlling illegal dumping although no country has reported any cases. In the regional context, the problem has not been dealt properly and requires more attention from the BSC. Actions required: (a) to incorporate a monitoring system for litter as a component of the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Program (BSIM AP) and to develop and implement coordinated methodologies and techniques for assessment of litter pollution; (b) to promote know-how and innovative technologies for solid waste management in small municipalities; (c) to raise public awareness and educate populace, including the tourists, on issues of recycling and the reusing of solid wastes; (d) to improve information flow and exchange in order to share the best experiences, innovative technologies and know-how amongst the Black Sea municipalities; (e) to develop regional guidelines for the monitoring of illegal dumping; (f) to train and equip inspection personnel; (g) to promote pilot projects for small municipalities;

· the amending of the Protocol on Dumping to the Bucharest Convention was not on the agenda of the BSC before 2002. Existence of information gaps shows that the strengthening of the information requirements under the Protocol essentially requires the BSC attention and more intense work on the part of the Activity Center on Environmental Safety Aspects of Shipping. The harmonization of penalties and monitoring systems on the regional level needs further improvement. Actions required: (a) to promote ratification of the London Convention to the Contracting parties as appropriate; (b) to revise the Protocol on Dumping and to prepare the necessary amendments by the next Ministerial Meeting in 2007 [4] ; (c) to conduct necessary training and improve professional education; (d) to prepare and submit a proposal of a regional project for the integrated remote observation system for coastal zones pollution and other hazardous events;

· On the regional level, issues of waste management were not tackled at all in any of the programs or projects. The experience and knowledge on the available technologies, best management practices for household and hazardous wastes, etc. were not disseminated and were not shared among the Black Sea states. Regional strategy and feasibility projects in the coastal zone are needed for: (a) preparation of a solid waste inventory (domestic, hazardous and clinical) representing the current situation for Black Sea region, determination of waste characteristics and amount of waste, preparation of a related computer model, and education of the personnel; (b) determination of the appropriate Solid Waste Disposal Model in terms of financial and technical characteristics including waste collection, transportation, recovery and disposal and site selection for the disposal facilities; (c) determination and establishment of the appropriate unified model for the region related with integrated waste management; (d) preparation and development of rehabilitation projects for the existing open dump sites, and assessment of necessary system for the purpose of energy recovery from the existing sites by determination of financial and technical properties; (e) determination of the number, types, properties and costs of the equipment required by the proposed model in framework of the project; (f) preparation and development of application projects for selected facilities; (g) education of the personnel involved in solid waste management and processing;

· in cooperation with IMO and other relevant international organizations, the following regional projects would compliment the national efforts in addressing waste management issues if implemented: (a) to prepare guidelines/manuals for development of the Port Waste Management Plan in line with the IMO and EU requirements and to promote its implementation in all major Black Sea ports; (b) to promote the best environmental practices related to the treatment and disposal of wastes, including ship-generated wastes; (c) to implement ecosystem rehabilitation projects; (d) to prepare guidelines or manuals for operation, maintenance and inspection criteria of disposal areas to guide municipalities in the coastal zone.

Most of above activities proposed by the BSC in 2002 retain their topicality up to present day. The 15th Regular Meeting of the BSC (Istanbul, 20-22 November 2006) considered the achieved progress in implementation of the Black Sea Regional Activity on Marine Litter (item 8 of the agenda) and approved the BSC Workplan for the year 2006/2007 (item 11). Among other things, this workplan includes Paragraph 12 “Updating of the BS SAP”, with the final aim to adopt the new version of this strategic document at the Ministerial Meeting 2008. It was decided by the BSC members to use this opportunity and introduce specific ML actions into newly amended BS SAP.


National Consultants on ML were requested to supply their comments regarding the priority of Black Sea ML problem and strategic approaches to this problem in their countries. Results of the interviewing including valuable comments are presented in Table 4.1.

Most experts confirmed that the Black Sea ML problem constitutes a priority issue on the national level, although Bulgarian and Georgian consultants printed “no”. However, comments provided by both A. Nikolova and T. Gamgebeli show that the problem is really important (or even urgent in Georgia ) for their states despite the fact that the governments did not address and manage it yet in the proper way. Furthermore, comments by other consultants argue in favour of similar situation in Romania , Russia , Turkey and Ukraine . It seems to be true enough because any national strategy, action plan or programme specifically devoted to ML problem are lacking in all six Black Sea countries.

According to Article 81 of the BS SAP, each Black Sea coastal state must prepare a National Black Sea Strategic Action Plan or other corresponding document presenting reasonable actions for the national implementation of the BS SAP.

Bulgaria produced, adopted and partly implemented following strategic tools related to ML and solid waste management issues:

· National Strategy for the Environment and relevant Action Plan for 2000–2006;

· National Environmental Strategy and National Action Plan for 2007–2014;

· National Plan for Economic Development, Sector “Environment” for 2000-2006;

· National Waste Management Program for 2003–2007;

· National Strategy for Water Sector Management (up to 2015);

· ISPA Program for 1999–2000;

· ISPA Strategy for Environment 2003–2006; and

· National Program for priority establishment of waste water treatment plants (since 1999).

The Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Waters (BMEW) is entrusted with managerial functions on the implementation of above instruments. In its turn, the Bulgarian Ministry of Transport (BMT) is responsible for correct implementation of the:

· Strategy for development of the inland-waterway transport, sea transport and ports until the accession of the Republic of Bulgaria into the European Union (2000–2006);

· National transport strategy (up to 2015); and

· National Programme for Ports Development (2006–2016).

Two more programmes related to the ML problem – the Operational Programme on the Environment and the Sectoral Operational Programme on Transport (2007–2013) – are drafted and, probably, will be adopted by the Bulgarian Government by the end of 2006.

ML-related activities (both the implemented in Bulgaria during last decade and the ongoing) are listed in Table 4.2. Table 4.1. Experts’ views on the priority of and national strategic approach to the Black Sea ML problem in the coastal states

Question: Is ML in the marine and coastal environment perceived as a priority issue in your country?

A. Nikolova ( Bulgaria ) No In fact, litter pollution of the sea and coast is a priority issue for the society. The sociological analysis (carried out by GBF in 2001) showed that the most disturbing factor for Bulgarian beach visitors is beach pollution. More than 90% of the visitors answered that they do not like rubbish on the coast. However, there is no official document on national, regional and local level that addresses adequately litter pollution of the coastal and marine environment.

T. Gamgebeli (Georgia) No. On the one hand, Georgia is aiming at the development of tourism which is considered as one of major priorities of the country. That makes ML problem very actual. On the other hand, there is nothing done on governmental level to study this problem and find its solution. In all available sources it is noted that “the household garbage management system is in a terrible state, garbage collection system is broken down, and garbage, in the best cases, is disposed at landfills not meeting the required standards”. This is proved by the fact that the country does not have a Law on Wastes until now, sub-acts on ML have not been developed in coastal zones, and illegal landfills are arranged in cities and other areas very often in coastal zone. There are very few projects implemented on the local level (for example, partial reconstruction of the Batumi landfill).

A. Atudorei ( Romania ) Yes. ML represents one of the items in the Romanian National Strategic Action Plan for the Black Sea Integrated Control and Survey System of the Environment in Coastal Zone.

Y. Yurenko ( Russia ) Yes. ML problem caused a start of the Monitoring Marine Pollution Program in the Basin of the Black and Azov Seas (approved by the Head of Russian Government in 2003).

E. Okus ( Turkey ) Yes. During last five years public opinion, NGOs, ministries and local authorities have contributed to raising attention and taking precautions about the issue along with making new legal arrangements. Waste problem is one of high priority issues in Turkey . Municipalities are prohibited to dump solid wastes to river beds and coastal zone. The execution of the regulation on collecting wastes from ships has started; infrastructures of every harbour has been constructed and collecting of solid wastes has been organized; activities related to liquid wastes are about to be finalized. Various central, provincial and local governmental bodies are involved in the control and management procedures. Social movement against ML pollution has been organized by NGOs in most cities on the Turkish Black Sea coast.

N. Movchan ( Ukraine ) Yes. No comments.

Question: Could you formulate national strategic approach to the Black Sea ML problem?

A. Nikolova ( Bulgaria ) Currently ML problem is not addressed by specific strategic document. There is no specific ML strategic approach in Bulgaria setting legislative, institutional and financial framework. The determination of institutional responsibilities for management, control, monitoring and mitigation /cleaning up of ML is needed. Nevertheless, the strategic documents relating to waste management, water protection, port infrastructure development and regional development introduce some strategic principles, such as precautionary principle, polluter pays principle, clean technology /clean production principle which are aimed to prevent ML pollution.

T. Gamgebeli ( Georgia ) There is no national strategic approach to the ML problem, however the Environmental Performance Review (2003) includes recommendations on solid waste management: (1) preparation of investment projects envisaged by BS SAP; and (2) preparation of investment project for recycling of municipal and industrial waste.

A. Atudorei ( Romania ) In accordance with the Bucharest Convention:

· to prevent the pollution by hazardous substances or matter;

· to prevent, reduce and control the pollution from land-based sources;

· to prevent, reduce and control the pollution of the marine environment resulting from emergency situations;

· to prevent, reduce and control the pollution by dumping;

· to prevent, reduce and control the pollution caused by activities on the continental shelf, including the exploration and exploitation of natural resources;

· to prevent, reduce and control the pollution from or through the atmosphere;

· to protect the biodiversity and the marine living resources;

· to prevent the pollution by hazardous wastes in transboundary movement and from illegal traffic;

· to provide framework for scientific and technical cooperation and monitoring activities.

Y. Yurenko ( Russia ) No comments

E. Okus ( Turkey )

  1. Planning the installation of landfill sites, recycling facilities and incineration plants in populated areas of the Turkish Black Sea coast;

  2. Preventing solid wastes carried by rivers from their reaching the sea (e.g., installing screens in the estuaries to catch a litter);

  3. Performing regular cleaning the beaches and controlling these operations;

  4. Taking precautionary measures to prevent the pollution from maritime traffic, such as the controlling solid waste from ships through the documents;

  5. Finding a long term financial sources for the projects;

  6. Decreasing garbage quantity by means of awareness rising on household litter decomposing in situ;

  7. All Black Sea countries should annually report on activities listed above and present their plans and capacities to the BSC Secretariat.

N. Movchan ( Ukraine ) For the future:

· development and approval of national legislation concerning operations with ML;

· entering in force of legislative acts concerning ML;

· development and realisation of the system of ML monitiring, collecting and utilization;

· creation of specialized bodies responsable for the collecting and utilization of ML;

· determination of a national service responsible for control, database development and management of activities on ML.

Table 4.2. Implemented and running activities related to ML problem ( Bulgaria )

Project name Years Executing body Sponsor
Yearly campaign “Beach watch” for cleaning up of beaches since 1996 (ongoing) NGOs, local authorities, BSBD  
Scientific conferences and meetings on Black Sea environmental problems, Black Sea International Conference ( Varna) since 1999 (ongoing) BNAWQ Various sources
Capacity building of basin directorates in Bulgaria 2000 BMEW EU
Waste water treatment plant Obzor–Byala 2000   EU
Establishment of regional landfills – Sozopol 2001–2008 BMEW EU, ISPA
Bulgarian Vessel Traffic Management and Information System, Phase 1Vessel Traffic Management and Information System, Phase 2 2002–2004ongoing BMT EU Phare
Waste water treatment plant Meden Rudnik, Bourgas 2003–2007 BMEW EU, ISPA
Waste regional management (Bourgas, Provadia and Dobrich regions) 2003–2007 BMEW EU
Integral monitoring of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast between Durankulak and Rezovo 2004 BMEW EU
Support to the Black Sea Basin Directorate for implementation of requirements of Water Directive in relation to the monitoring system in coastal waters 2005–2006 BMEW / BSBD EU
Strengthening of the waterborne tasks of the Bulgarian Maritime Administration 2005–2006 BMT / BMA EU Phare
Establishment of port reception facilities for liquid and solid ship waste 20062008 BMT / BMA Various sources
Waste water treatment plant VarnaAsparuhovo and rehabilitation of urban waste water treatment plan in Varna, II stage   BMEW EU
Optimisation of national information waste system   BMEW  
Wetlands restoration and pollution reduction project   BMEW GEF
Environmental educational and awareness raising programs and initiatives ongoing NGOs, local authorities, schools, BMEW regional bodies  
International Blue Flag movement ongoing resorts, marinas  

Georgia . The National Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea has been drafted between 1998 and 2005, however it is not adopted yet by Georgian authorities. This draft document includes some items related to the ML problem. The National Consultant provided two quotations as an illustration:

1. “In accordance with the Georgian legislation and requirements of MARPOL 73/78, by 2005 should be developed: … rules preventing the pollution of the sea from ships by garbage”;

2. “Illegal dumping is very usual in Georgia . Quite a number of city landfills and polygons are located just at the riverbanks or sea shore. Very often industrial wastes are disposed at the municipal landfills. Georgia does not have a waste management unified policy. Development of National Action Plan is the first attempt to develop such a strategy and the attitude towards the waste management is defined by the following hierarchy: (a) prevention of wastes generation and their reduction at the source; (b) recycling and reuse; (c) energy generation from unused wastes by their burning; (d) their safe disposal at the landfills. Proceeding ... this principle can be used only in long-term perspective.”

According to the information, presented by the National Consultant, during last decade there was no any Georgian programme or project that was fully or partly concerned in the ML problem. Nevertheless, it is known from another source ( BSC, 2002) that Georgia adopted the State Standard for Collection of Wastes and realized some other activities in the framework of the World Bank’s Project on the Integrated Management of Costal Zone. In 1998, the Black Sea Eco-Academy NGO ( Batumi) implemented a public awareness project entitled “Make Less Garbage – Info-Bus Campaign” supported by the TACIS Environmental Awareness Programme.

Romania . The National Plan for Waste Management (2000) and the National Strategic Action Plan for Black Sea Integrated Control and Survey System of the Environment in the Costal Zone (2002) have been adopted in Romania . The Solid Waste Management Plans for costal municipalities were developed as well on the local level. It is important to mention that the waste management policy is amended currently in Romania in accordance with appropriate EC Directives and other requirements of the European Union. This activity has started in March 2006 by setting up the inter-ministerial working group.

In 2000–2001, the Mare Nostrum NGO (Constantsa) in co-operation with its Bulgarian partner (GBF, Bourgas) implemented the “Clean Beaches” project [5] supported by the REC for CEE. During the same period the Mare Nostrum has implemented two more ML-related projects on the national level. [6] In 2004, the same NGO along with the Ecumenical Association of the Churches from Romania and the World Council of Churches organized the Workshop on Eco-Ethics and Environmental Education. In summer 2005 and 2006, the Mare Nostrum carried out the “Clean Seaside” public campaign sponsored by the Vodafone- Romania.

Russia. The “Wastes” Federal Programme has been implemented in 1996-2001. It envisaged, in particular, a series of measures/actions for the improvement of solid waste management. The “Ecology and Natural Resources” Federal Programme was adopted for the next 10-year period (2001-2010). This programme includes the “Wastes” sub-program. In 2003-2005, the Hydrometeorological Agency of the Russian Federation (RosHydromet) supported the environmental project entitled as the “Monitoring of the pollution in Russian areas of the Black and Azov Seas” (see Section 5.1.1, B).

Turkey . In May 2004, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry signed a protocol with the Institute of Chemistry and Environment of the Marmara Research Center for the preparation of the National Action Plan related to land based sources of pollutants in the Mediterranean and Agean Seas, Sea of Marmara and Black Sea. All the land base sources pollutants were determined, and the priorities were defined according to the sectors and areas. After completion of all studies National Action Plan for the prevention of polluting coming from land base sources was prepared and approved.

According to the adopted priorities two priority investment programs were elaborated and started being implemented, including the Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project, which in addition to national funds was supported by GEF and World Bank. The duration of the Project, started in 2005, is 7 years. The aim of the Project is providing a stabilized natural resources management, increasing the income of people living in the Anatolia and Black Sea Regions and decreasing the pollution originating by agricultural activities and transported by Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak Rivers. The project is fully integrated with environmental concern in agricultural practices to make them more sustainable. It includes “storage, management and application of manure” and “ecological sustainable use of natural resources” to reduce the discharge of nutrient load into the Turkish ground and surface waters as well as into the Black Sea. Pilot areas are: Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak (Tokat, Samsun, Çorum, Amasya) River Basin Area. The Nitrate Directive was translated into Turksih. The main responsible authority is the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Since 2000 all municipalities at the Black Sea coast of Turkey came to the point of constructing adequate landfill sites and recycling facilities for solid waste disposal; plans for solid waste management have been developed and their implementation has started:

· Municipal solid waste Landfills for the cities in Rize-Trabzon area (including 25 towns), Samsun Greater Municipality, cities of Sinop area (including 3 towns) and Adapazarı (including 12 towns) construction of municipal landfills has started in 2005

· the Union of Drinking Water, Solid and Liquid Waste was founded in January 2006 in Giresun. The EIA reports were prepared and the pre-EIA was approved for this city; the construction project has been developed and tender procedure has been completed;

· Ordu finalized the EIA report, and the facility should become operational in 2008;

· in Samsun solid waste is being landfilled regularly and coastal cleaning activities are carried out on a daily basis. Municipalities that are linked to Samsun Metropolitan Municipality collect solid wastes within their boundaries and transport them to Yılanlıdere near Canik, where the wastes are buried under the river bed. In 2007, Samsun Metropolitan Municipality should open new regular disposal site for permanent operation;

· solid wastes of Zonguldak are dumped into the open area just near the sea. However, 15ha of a forest area near Sofular village have been allocated by the Forestry General Directorate in order to construct there new regular storage facility in substitution of the old one. The EIA process was finished in 2006. The construction project started and was expected to be finalized in 2007. It is planned that 32 municipalities will use this facility. The facility will become operational in 2007;

· regular landfill area in Valley of Filyos (Karabük–Bartın–Zonguldak triangle) undergoes the process of EIA;

· feasibility studies and tender documents are prepared for cities of Tokat (Yeşilırmak river basin) and Nevşehir (Kızılırmak river basin). It is expected to start the construction of solid waste facilities there in 2007;

· the World Bank financed the development of a regional solid waste management system with a sanitary landfill in Sürmene; however, for 15 years this proposal has not been advanced because of the legal opposition of the inhabitants in this region (Berkun et al., 2005). A new project for the use of this area as a landfill site has been reconsidered since the legal problems were resolved in 2004;

· some municipalities have purchased new equipment to keep beaches clean.

The above listed efforts suggest that the Turkish government devotes steadfast attention to the development of solid waste management systems in the populated areas of the Black Sea coast. However, it was noted recently (Berkun et al., 2005) that such activities seem to be more difficult to implement in those sites than, for instance, in Istanbul (see Box 4.2).

Box 4.2. Solid waste management in Istanbul(after Berkun et al., 2005)9000 tons of municipal solid waste are generated in the city on a daily basis. The present solid waste production per capita is 0.63kg/day. Until 1953, Istanbul’s wastes had been dumped at sea. After that, the disposal of solid wastes in open dumps became a common practice, until the publication of the Solid Waste Control Regulation in 1991. Istanbul had five open dumping areas; the Princess Islands’ solid wastes were dumped into four dumping areas on the islands themselves. More recently, the Islands’ solid wastes have been transported to the mainland.According to the Solid Waste Control Regulation, the local district municipalities are responsible for the collection and transportation of all municipality solid wastes to the transfer stations. The Metropolitan Municipality is responsible only for the collection of solid wastes from the main streets, public parks and then the management of the all solid wastes after they are brought to the transfer stations. The Metropolitan Municipality is also responsible for the construction and operation of the final disposal sites. The Municipality of the Metropolitan City of Istanbul has constructed six transfer stations since 1995. Three of the transfer stations, Halkalı, Baruthane and Yeni Bosna, with 53, 65 and 50 silos, respectively, and a total capacity of 7500 ton/day, are located on the Asian side. The other three transfer stations, Aydınlı, Hekimbaşı and Küçükbakkalköy, having 55, 69 and 45 silos, respectively, and a total capacity of 7500 ton/day, are on the European side. The volume of each silo is 32m3. The distance of the transfer stations from the sanitary landfills is between 38 and 51km. Collected solid wastes are brought by truck to the transfer stations, emptied into the vertical silos, and compacted to reduce the volume by 20% before the silos are carried to the final disposal areas. The Odayeri sanitary landfill has an available area of 14ha and reserved area of 2000ha for future developments. It has the capacity to store 4500 ton of solid waste per day. The area of the other sanitary landfill, Komurcuada, is 6ha, but an additional 50ha is reserved for the future.Industrial solid wastes are not collected by the Municipality. It is the responsibility of industry itself to collect and transport its own solid waste to disposal sites, and hazardous wastes to the incineration plant located at Kocaeli. Healthcare wastes are collected and transferred to the incineration plant separately by the municipality.

However, recent information reported by the national consultant shows significant progress in the:

According to the Law for the Environment No. 2872, Amended Environment Law No. 5491, Law of the Metropolitan Municipality No. 5216 and Law of the Municipality No. 5393, the local district municipalities are responsible for the collection and transportation of all municipality solid wastes to the transfer stations. The Metropolitan Municipality is responsible for the collection of solid wastes from the main streets, public parks and then for the management of all solid wastes after they are brought to the transfer stations. The Metropolitan Municipality is also responsible for the construction and operation of the final disposal sites. The Municipality of the Metropolitan City of Istanbul has constructed six transfer stations that are Umraniye (Hekimbaşı), Tuzla (Aydınlı), Kadıköy (Küçükbakkalköy), Sişli (Baruthane), Bahçelievler (Yenibosna), Küçükçekmece (Halkalı). The Metropolitan Municipality transports solid wastes from transfer stations to the landfill sites in Kemerburgaz (Odayeri) and Şile (Kömürcüoda). Medical Wastes are collected in separate on a daily basis using 12 special vehicles and transferred to the incineration plant of medical wastes in Kemerburgaz (Odayeri) for incineration. More than 24.000 kg/day medical wastes are collected. Waste batteries are collected also separetaly at 300 points in Istanbul. In average 1700 kg waste batteries are collected monthly. The Metropolitan Municipality puts waste batteries into the waste battery store in Kemerburgaz (Odayeri) landfill sites.

A series of ML-related projects are carried out in Turkey on volunteer basis with the financial assistance from various sponsoring agencies. Some of them are listed as follows:

· Coastal Cleanup Campaign with Soldiers and Soldier’s Families (implemented by the Turkish Naval Forces);

· Cleanup Activity under the Sea (implemented by STH NGO, Istanbul);

· International Coastal Cleanup Campaign (coordinated by TURMEPA NGO, Istanbul);

· Education of Household on Domestic Solid Waste Management (implemented by the Environment and Culture Enterprising, Trabzon);

· Publishing the “Hot News Bulletin” and the “ Black Sea Bulletin” (TURÇEK NGO, Istanbul).

Ukraine . The National Concept for the Protection and Recovery of the Environment of the Azov and Black Seas has been adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in July 1998. Later on, it was followed by the National Programme of the same name (2001-2010) adopted by the Parliament and President of Ukraine in March 2001. This strategic document includes, in particular, following activities:

· development of the control system for preventing the transmission of dangerous substances by marine transport and sea water pollution from vessels; and

· improvement of the municipal and industrial waste operation system in the coastal zone.

Local action plans for solid waste management were developed and incorporfated in the environmental programmes/plans prepared on the provincial level.

However, after five years of the imlementation of the National Programme, it was resumed by the independent expert (Stephanska, 2006) that Ukraine has not yet developed a self-sufficient national infrastructure for waste management and disposal, although a positive trend in increasing the proportion of recovered or recycled waste is observed. Two of four waste incineration plants are functional in Ukraine , but their equipment does not meet environmental standards, and the resulting ashes and slag are not disposed of properly. Due to the absence of a self-sufficient national infrastructure for waste management and disposal, many regions of Ukraine are experiencing difficulties with processing and disposal of hazardous waste. Most companies have to store hazardous waste on their sites in dangerous amounts. Only few companies' disposal facilities are properly engineered for this purpose. The number of specialized sites for centralized processing of hazardous waste is insufficient.

O. Stephanska (2006) concludes also that “given the heavy reliance in Ukraine on dumping in poorly-controlled sites for solid waste disposal, the greatest practical benefit in terms of reducing threats to human health and the environment would ultimately be achieved by implementing the European Union’s Landfill Directive, although this would be a long term goal”.

There are several pilot landfill management projects in Ukraine . European companies from France , Italy and Spain are exporting waste sorting lines for these projects. In 2004, the U.S. Trade and Development Agency awarded a USD 300,000 grant to the Ukrainian city of Yalta situated on the Black Sea coast of Crimea to fund a feasibility study for developing a modern municipal solid waste management system. The study, completed in 2006, investigated the best available options to replace the old dry-tomb landfill with an integrated waste management system that includes waste minimization, recycling and waste-to-energy conversion. If the project is implemented it will bring modern US technologies to Ukraine .

In 2002 and 2003, the ML surveys have been conducted on the Black Sea coast of Crimea, in the Kerch Strait and over the entire area of the Ukrainian territorial sea (Interdependence..., 2002, 2003; Birkun and Krivokhizhin, 2006). The results of those initiatives supported by the Ukrainian Ministry of Environment and Utrish Dolphinarium Ltd. (Moscow) can be found in Sections 5.1.1 A, C and 5.1.2 A.

The outputs of ML-related projects implemented in the Black Sea countries in 1996-2006 are summarized in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3. Outputs of ML-related projects and other initiatives implemented in Black Sea countries in 1996-2006

(based on the data presented by national consultants on ML and supplemented with relevant information from other sources)

Achieved results Bulgaria Georgia Romania Russia Turkey Ukraine
Legal and administrative instruments aimed to manage ML problem are improved yes yes yes yes yes yes
Waste management policy is amended yes no yes yes yes yes
Sustainable integrated management of ML is secured no no no no no no
Methodology to monitor ML pollution is developed (or acquired), including methods which are serviceable to assess: yes1 no yes2 yes3 yes4 yes5
ML quantities yes no n.a. yes yes yes
ML composition yes no n.a. no yes yes
ML distribution patterns yes no n.a. yes yes yes
ML sources no no n.a. no yes no
ML trends yes no n.a. yes yes yes
ML impact on the:
environment no no n.a. no yes no
biodiversity no no n.a. no yes no
public health no no n.a. no yes no
economics no no n.a. no yes no
Monitoring of ML and its effects is organized and maintained no no no no yes no
Assessment of ML pollution is completed no no no no no no
Proposals to prevent and reduce ML and its adverse effects are prepared no no yes yes yes no
Campaigns and/ or permanent services for ML collecting are developed yes no yes yes yes no
New technologies/ devices for ML collecting and processing are elaborated or purchased no no yes no yes no
Port reception facilities and services for garbage collection from vessels are developed and/or improved yes yes yes yes yes no
Major stakeholders are involved in anti-ML partnership/cooperation, including: yes6 no yes n.a. yes no
shipping industry yes no yes n.a. yes no
tourism industry yes no yes n.a. n.a. no
Manufacturers of plastics yes no n.a. n.a. yes no
Fisheries yes no n.a. n.a. yes no
waste managers/services yes no yes n.a. yes no
municipalities, local communities and authorities yes no yes n.a. yes no
NGOs and general public yes no yes n.a. yes no
Training for officers occupied with ML management is organized yes no no n.a. no no
Professional sectorial guidelines for ML management are developed for: yes no yes n.a. no no
tourism yes no n.a. n.a. no no
boating no no n.a. n.a. no no
diving no no n.a. n.a. no no
cruise lines no no n.a. n.a. no no
fisheries no no n.a. n.a. no no
coastal construction no no n.a. n.a. no no
Awareness and educational tools (brochures, posters, TV-clips, etc.) dedicated to ML problems are produced yes no yes n.a. yes no
'Responsible citizenship' guidelines for different sectors and target audiences are developed, in particular, for yes no yes n.a. yes7 no
children and students yes no n.a. n.a. no no
Tourists yes no n.a. n.a. no no
municipal authorities and local communities yes no n.a. n.a. no no
shipping companies no no n.a. n.a. no no
ship and smaller vessels crews no no n.a. n.a. no no
commercial and recreation fishing vessels no no n.a. n.a. no no
other identified target groups no no n.a. n.a. yes no
Mass media awareness-raising campaign fighting against ML is initiated yes no yes yes yes no
Growth of public awareness/ participation in cleanup activities became sound yes no yes yes yes no

n.a. – not available (some National Consultants found difficulties in answering these questions).

1 – methodology for monitoring beach litter pollution was elaborated and tested on voluntary base for five pilot beaches;

2 – methodology to monitor ML pollution is developed in part (not specially for ML) in frames of the National standards “Waste characterization” and ROMECOM (household waste characterization);

3 – semi-quantitative method of aerial registration of floating ML;

4 – qualitative and quantitative methods including those which are applicable for the coastal and underwater ML surveing;

5 – mainly quantitative methods for beaches and maritime areas including the ML surveying based on the line transect methodology;

6 – a workshop for initiation of partnership for clean beaches was organised by GBF in 2001 and representatives of all the listed stakeholders expressed their commitment to co-operate;

7 – the Hot Guidelines for NGOs and responsible citizenship guidelines for housewifes and sports clubs are developed.