The Europaen Commission The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution
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Report Contents

Executive Summary Acknowledgements SECTION I: BSIMAP and BSIS SECTION II: MONITORING, DATA FLOWS TO THE BSC AND INDICATORS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE BOTTLENECKS SECTION III: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Annex I. PROJECTS IN THE BLACK SEA REGION Annex II. BSIMAP MANDATORY AND OPTIONAL PARAMETERS Annex III. META DATA SUBMITTED TO THE BSC Annex VI. FISHERY REPORT ON SUITABILITY OF BSIS DATA FOR CALCULATION OF INDICATORS Annex V. NORTHWARD MOVEMENT OF SPECIES Annex VI. PROPOSED NEW INDICATORS FROM THE BLACK SEA Annex VII. FORWARD LOOKING AT MSFD
List of Tables List of Figures

Final ¨Diagnostic Report¨ to guide improvements to the regular reporting process on the state of the Black Sea environment, August 2010

2002 - 2007

Diagnostic Report to guide improvements to the regular reporting process on the state of the Black Sea environment

Annex I: Projects in the Black Sea region[8]

I. Data Collection + Field observations +Remote sensing Projects

  1. EC 4th FP daNUbs (finalized), Years: 2001-2004, Full name: Nutrients management in the Danube Basin and its impact on the Black Sea, http://danubs.tuwien.ac.at/

The project, through literature and data review in combination with field work, addressed:

         the nutrient balance in the Black Sea catchment with main emphasis on diffuse pollution (e.g. agriculture, air pollution) and the transport, retention and losses of nutrients in the catchment (nutrient balances in case study regions), 

         the transport, retention and losses of nutrients and silica along the Danube River and 

         the effect of riverine nutrient and silica discharges on the parts of Western Black Sea directly influenced by the Danube River plume

  Mathematical models: Based on an improved process understanding, mathematical models were further developed, combined, and applied to quantitatively assess nutrient fluxes from the Danube Basin along the Danube and the Delta to the mixing zone of the Western Black Sea and to quantify the impact of these fluxes on the Western Black Sea. This part used: 

         the MONERIS-emission model based on a GIS data base, 

         the Danube Water Quality Model (DWQM) for the description of the transport and transformation processes in the river system, 

         the Danube Delta Model (DDM) for the quantification of nutrient transport in the Danube Delta and (iv) the Shelf Model for modelling the direct impact of the Danube load on the Western Black Sea. Based on these models the whole system was considered as a complex unit and scenarios were developed as a basis for scenario evaluation.

  Strategic planning: the project was oriented towards elaboration of advise for future strategic planning on the catchment scale. This part included: 

         a method to establish comparable, basin-wide, periodic nutrient balances considering the national data availability and 

         the evaluation of different solutions for future nutrient management strategies considering socio-economic developments in the Danube Basin.

1.1. Field cruises carried out by NIMRD-Constanta and IFR-Varna in the Western Part of the Black Sea:

Bulgarian waters: major cruises in Varna Bay (10 stations); transects at Capes Kaliakra (5 stations), Galata (5 stations) and Emine (5 stations) 1-to 30 miles offshore.

         3-8 June 2001

         13-15 November 2001

         23-25 August 2002

         18-20 November 2002

         12-15 August 2003

Romanian waters: all stations from the RO national monitoring system observed on a seasonal basis.

1.2. Archives of data (hydrology, chemistry, biology) not anymore accessible through the WEB page of the project.

The project compiled historical data collected in the Western Part of the Black Sea for the period 1990-2000, Excel files.

2. EC 5th FP EUROGEL(finalized), Years: 2002-2005, Full name: EUROpean GELatinous zooplankton:mechanisms behind jellyfish blooms and their ecological and socio-economic effects, http://www.bio.uib.no/eurogel/

The project defined the basic biological and ecological factors that govern reproduction, growth, and survival for a number of different gelatinous species, commonly occurring in high abundance. Five different habitats were appointed as model environments, all characterised by their seasonal or permanent mass occurrence of jellyplankton, but otherwise quite divergent. These study sites were investigated with the aim of defining and quantifying the importance of each target species, and especially its ability to affect fish production, and are backed up by other field- and experimental studies. The results were put into a historical perspective by reviewing previous documentation of fisheries and jellyplankton biomass. Literature and new data were used in a mathematical model, to define the competitive ability between the targeted jellyplankton species and visual predators like fish, and this helped in understanding in which biological and environmental conditions one or the other of the two types of competitors will dominate. A particle-tracking model was used to give prognoses for mass-occurrence of jellies due to advective transport. As a more specific approach towards the aquaculture industry acute and chronic effects on fish of jellyfish stings were studied. Socio-economic effects of jellies outbreaks in EU waters were investigated as well.

2.1. Cruises

Year Date Station Note
2004 4.06. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30 Cape Kaliakra 1-30 miles offshore
  5.06. B5, G1, G3, G10, G20, G30 Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-30 miles offshore
  28.08. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30 Cape Kaliakra 1-30 miles offshore
  29.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30 Cape Galata 1-30 miles offshore
  30.08. 24-hours station Varna Bay
  4.10. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15, G20 Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-20 miles offshore
2005 15.03. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15, Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-15 miles offshore
  26.04. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15 Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-15 miles offshore
  14.06. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G20 Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-20 miles offshore
  22.08. B5,G1, G3, G5, G10, G15 Varna Bay (B5) and Cape Galata 1-15 miles offshore
    1. Historical data 1965-2001 jellies, mesozooplankton, fish. Not accessible through the WEB page of the project.

3. UNDP/GEF BSERP , I and II phase (finalized), Years: 2001-2008, Full name: Black Sea Environment Recovery Project, http://ps-blacksea-commission.ath.cx/bserp/

Black Sea Environment recovery Project in support of the Bucharest Convention implementation.

The BSERP contributed to sustainable human development in the Black Sea area through reinforcing the cooperation and the capacities of the Black Sea countries to take effective measures in reducing nutrients and other hazardous substances to such levels necessary to permit Black Sea ecosystems to recover to similar conditions as those observed in the 1960s. The overall objective of the project was to ensure (i) that all of the Black Sea countries take concrete measures (including investment activities) in the eutrophication causing sectors to reduce load of nutrients and hazardous substances on the Black Sea ecosystem and, (ii) that major findings and recommendations of the project are incorporated in national policies, strategies and, where possible, in national legislation.

Cruises in 2003 -2006, carried out by international scientific teams at Bulgarian R/V Akademik (3 cruises) and Ukrainian R/V Vladimir Parshin (1 cruise) Western Part of the Black Sea. Datasets are multidisciplinary, containing data in areas of physical and chemical oceanography, marine biology, meteorology, sediment quality etc.

        Format: ASCII (reports, data files)

        Data source link: mailto:secretariat@blacksea-commission.org

4.      UNEP/ACCOBAMS (finalized), Years: 2008-2009, Full name: in the text, www.blacksea-commission.org

The UNEP/ACCOBAMS/BSC project consisted of two main sub-activities, undertaken in Ukraine and Turkey:

In Ukraine:

Involvement of Black Sea artisanal fisheries in anti-bycatch and anti-marine litter activities

Objectives of the project

  • To study numbers and composition of cetacean by-catches, record birds mortality and ML taken from the sea during normal fishing operations on the seabed in the northwestern Black Sea off the coast of Ukraine.
  • To prepare, publish and disseminate in Ukraine among fishing crews the responsible professional guidelines and propagandistic leaflets regarding ML issues and ghost fishing.

In Turkey:

Cetacean bycatch and stranding related to turbot fishery and marine litter pollution in the Western Black Sea Turkish coast

Components of the project are: research of incidental catches of Black Sea cetaceans and other species in turbot bottom gillnets, research of marine litter (ML) taken by bottom-set gillnets during turbot fishing operations, research of stranding cetaceans on Turkish coast of the western Black Sea, seasonally, and of its possible relation with the turbot fishing operations, research of coastal ML in the Western Black Sea, public awareness, education and information exchange regarding ML and cetaceans

Project implemented. Final report available.

5. EC FP7 SESAME, Years: 2007-2010, Full name: "Southern European Seas: Assessing and Modelling Ecosystem changes", (http://www.sesame-ip.eu/)

SESAME aims to assess and predict changes in the Southern European Seas (Mediterranean and Black Sea) ecosystems and in their ability to provide key goods and services with high societal importance, such as tourism, fisheries, ecosystem biodiversity and mitigation of climate change through carbon sequestration in water and sediments. The Mediterranean and Black Sea, are unique and evolve rapidly with large interannual to decadal variability and abrupt fluctuations. For this reason, SESAME will merge economic and natural science in order to study the changes in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea. To this end, it will bridge the gap between natural and socio-economic sciences in order to assess the ability of the ecosystems to sustain these essential functions.

The project provides an integrated, ecosystem-based approach, considering Mediterranean and Black Sea as a coupled climatic/ecosystem entity, with links and feedbacks to the World Ocean. The assessment of these changes is based on the identification of the major regime shifts in ecosystems that have taken place in the last 50 years.

SESAME provides a platform for training, education and outreach in an integrated manner, which will ensure that the scientific results are translated and disseminated to all levels of society. Existing information, models, simulations and scenarios are combined under several Work Packages (WPs).

6.1. Cruises: April 2008, October 2008: details at http://seadata.bsh.de/csr/retrieve/V1_index.html

6.2. Archives data compilation since 1950s, Data holder: Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research Limited, IOLR, (http://isramar.ocean.org.il/sesamemeta/)

6. EC FP7 HYPOX, Years: 2009-2012, Full name: In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion, (www.hypox.net)

HYPOX is a EU funded project involving 16 partner institutions located in 11 countries in and around Europe. HYPOX is focusing on a better understanding of the occurrence of hypoxia (low oxygen conditions) in aquatic systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on the responsible processes. the scientific work focuses on capacity building for improved oxygen monitoring (continuously at high temporal resolution) at a number of target sites as well as on modeling and prediction of hypoxia and ecosystem consequences.

Black Sea related work is focusing on three sites:

1. Istanbul Strait

(Istanbul Technical University, Eastern Mediterranean Centre for Oceanography and Limnology; Ifremer, France; Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany). Main topic: Occurrence and effect of lateral intrusions of oxic Mediterranean waters on anoxic Black Sea waters. A first cruise was conducted in November 2008 (http://hypoxnews.blogspot.com/2009/11/black-sea-cruise-in-istanbul-strait.html). Work will continue in April 2010 on board FS Maria S. Merian.

 2. Romanian Shelf

(Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany; National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology of Romania). Main topic: shelf ecosystem recovery under decreasing anthropogenic nutrient supply and the effect of climate patterns on shelf hypoxia dynamics status: The Geoecomar already conducted surveys in the area (the first HYPOX cruise in april 2008; http://hypoxnews.blogspot.com/2009/11/surveys-of-hypox-partner-geoecomar-at.html). an oceanographic mooring will be deployed in 2009.

 3. Crimean Shelf

(A.O.Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Ukrainian National Academy of Science, Ukraine; Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany). Main topic: benthic processes under changing oxygen concentrations due to chemocline oscillations. The first main cruise to the area will happen in April 2010 and include deployment of oceanographic moorings and various other instruments.

In September and November 2009 IBSS, Tarkhankut gas seeps region a shallow area near the Crimea Peninsula. The observations conducted include physico-chemical as well as biological parameters.

Cruises also at : http://hypoxnews.blogspot.com/search?updated-min=2009-01-01T00%3A00%3A00-08%3A00&updated-max=2010-01-01T00%3A00%3A00-08%3A00&max-results=15

  1. EC FP7 MEECE, Years: 2010-2013, Full name: Marine Ecosystem Evolution in a Changing Environment, http://www.meece.eu/

MEECE is an European FP7 Integrated Project with 22 partners from across Europe. The project is coordinated by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the UK.

MEECE will use predictive models that consider the full range of drivers to explore the responses of the marine ecosystem in a holistic manner, rather than driver by driver as has been done in the past. MEECE will explore the impacts of both climate drivers (acidification, light, circulation and temperature) and anthropogenic drivers (fishing, pollution, invasive species and eutrophication).

This innovative approach will help scientists and decision makers to respond to multiple driver impacts with appropriate, knowledge-based, management applications. MEECE will also go a step further and provide methodologies to evaluate new decision making and management tools.

What will MEECE do?

  • Review the impacts of the drivers on the marine ecosystem.
  • Scenario test the impacts of drivers on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems.
  • Develop indicators of ecosystem status.
  • Develop a coupled model system to predict ecosystem response from plankton to fish.
  • Create a model library of ecosystem modules couplers and decision support tools for management concerning the EC Marine Strategy, EC Maritime Policy and the EC Common Fisheries.
  1. EC EuroARGO (GMES services), Years: 2008 on, Full name: Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure (about the Black Sea program: http://www.euro-argo.eu/news_and_events/euro_argo_black_sea_meeting)

The Euro-Argo array is the European component of a world wide in situ global ocean observing system, based on autonomous profiling floats. The Argo objective is to develop a global array of floats (spaced 300 km apart, on average) throughout the ice-free areas of the deep ocean. It is estimated that some 3,000 floats are required to reach this objective. The floats are battery powered, with a design life of between 3/4 to 5 years, i.e. about 800 floats must be deployed per year to maintain the target array. The data are transmitted in real time by satellite to data centres for processing, management, and distribution. The Euro-Argo objective is to provide a sustained European contribution to the international Argo programme.

The first autonomous profiling float was deployed in the Black Sea on 8th of Dec. 2009.

9.                  EC FP6 MONRUK, Years: 2007-2009, Full name:  Aeronautics and Space project developing marine monitoring services for Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, http://monruk.nersc.no/

The overall objective was to develop and implement satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) monitoring of the marine environment in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan (the RUK area) as a component of GMES. Satellite SAR images for the three study areas were collected in order to develop and validate retrieval algorithms for ocean and sea ice parameters. The SAR data collection was done by: (a) using existing ERS and ENVISAT SAR data retrieved from ESA archives; (b) new acquisition of ENVISAT ASAR data, including alternating polarization images, and (c) RADARSAT SAR images.

Results:

  • Established procedure to facilitate access to SAR data from ENVISAT and RADARSAT in near real time for the RUK area.
  • Improved algorithms and analysis tools for SAR ocean and sea ice products.
  • Demonstration of SAR monitoring and service chain to key users in the RUK area .
  • Installed and tested an information system with web  map servers and regional data  nodes.
  • Results of user requirements analysis, users surveys and feedback from users to service chain testing, which will be useful to all potential data provideres and service providers who plan to offer new and improved information products to users.
  • Recommendations for development of future monitoring services for the marine environment in the RUK area

10. EC PROMOTE (finalized), Years: 2006-2009, Full name: PROtocol MOniToring for the GMES Service Element:Atmosphere, http://www.gse-promote.org/, continued through: MACC ( http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/raq/raq_nrt/)

Mission: To deliver the Atmosphere GMES Service Element a sustainable and reliable operational service to support informed decisions on the atmospheric policy issues of stratospheric ozone depletion, surface UV exposure, air quality and climate change.

PROMOTE project created a dedicated web page for the Black Sea region in the field of atmospheric pollution (http://db.eurad.uni-koeln.de/promote/RLAQS/riu_rlaqs.php?force=BSC).

11. EC EuropeAID (finalized), Years 2007-2009, Full name: Environmental Collaboration for the Black Sea,  http://www.ecbsea.org/en/

The Project aimed to improve:

  • regional cooperation for protection of the Black Sea;
  • national capacities to implement and enforce existing environmental legislation, secondary laws and regulations to implement the Bucharest Convention;
  • national legislations, secondary laws and regulations to implement the Bucharest Convention at national level, taking into account convergence to EU water related legislation, in particular the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the forthcoming EU Marine Strategy (see also the page on International and EU legislation);
  • biological water quality monitoring of pollution;
  •  integrated coastal zone management;
  • protection of marine biodiversity through the establishment of Marine Reserves;
  • public participation and awareness raising.

As a result of the two years of intensive work of ECBSea Project offices in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, international and national experts in cooperation and consultation with the Environmental Ministries as well as stakeholders in the beneficiary countries, the Project came up with the following outputs for the Black Sea:

1.      Text of Amendments to the Bucharest Convention

2.      Guidelines for the Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in the Black Sea (in English and Russian)

3.      Background paper for the regional NGO workshop: The Bucharest Convention: How to improve transparency and accountability?

4.      Draft Law of Ukraine on Coastal Zone 

5.      Guidelines on Territorial Planning in Coastal Zone of Ukraine (in English and Ukrainian)

6.      Current State and Perspectives of Legal Regulation for Wetlands of National and Local Importance in Ukraine

7.      Designation Dossier for the Establishment of the Marine Protected Area in the Black Sea Ukraine:

10.  Desk Study of Small Phyllophora Field MPA in Karkinitsky Bay
- Field Survey of Karkinitsky Bay MPA
- GIS maps of Karkinitsky Bay

8.      Preliminary Management Plan for the Small Phylophora Field Marine Protected Area Karkinitsky Bay (Ukraine)

9.      Proposal for the Declaration of a Marine Protected Area: Botanical Reserve of National Importance, Small Phyllophora Field of Karkinitsky Bay (Ukraine)

10.  Water Sector Convergence Plan (Road Map) for the four EU Directives (Georgia)

11.  Concept for the New Framework Water Law of Georgia

12.  Integrated Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Georgia

13.  Integrated Plan for Sustainable Development of Tskhaltsminda Coastal Community  in Georgia

14.  Report on Results of Coastal Community Survey on Sustainable Development in Tskhaltsminda (Georgia)

12. HERMES (finalized), Years: 2005-2009, Full name: Hotspot ecosystem research on the margins of European seas, http://www.eu-hermes.net

Biological oceanography, Chemical oceanography, Cross-discipline, Fisheries and aquaculture, Marine geology.

HERMES was designed to gain new insights into the biodiversity, structure, function and dynamics of ecosystems along Europe's deep ocean margin. It represented the first major attempt to understand Europe's deep-water ecosystems and their environment in an integrated way by bringing together expertise in biodiversity, geology, sedimentology, physical oceanography, microbiology and biogeochemistry, so that the generic relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning can be understood. Studies will extend from the Arctic to the Black Sea and include open slopes, where landslides and deep-ocean circulation affect ecosystem development, and biodiversity hotspots, such as cold seeps, cold-water coral moulds, canyons and anoxic environments, where the geosphere and hydrosphere influence the biosphere through escape of fluids, presence of gas hydrates and deep-water currents.

Cruises: February-March 2007 (seep systems of the NW and NE Crimean margin); R/V Meteor.

II. Projects collecting data, creating data bases (no field observations)

    1. EC FP5 ARENA (finalized), Years: 2003-2006, Full name: A Regional Capacity Building and Networking Programme to Upgrade Monitoring and Forecasting Activity in the Black Sea, www

Biological oceanography, Environment, Physical oceanography

ARENA initiated a co-operative ocean programme to assess and identify the Black Sea resources, the needs for operational oceanography, to formulate a Data-Base Management System and to build capacity through training and improving the communication and other essential facilities, for the monitoring, understanding, modelling/prediction and forecasting for the entire basin.

    1. EC FP6 ASCOBOS (finalized), Years: 2005-2008, Full name: A Supporting Programme for Capacity Building in the Black Sea Region Towards Operational Status of Oceanographic Service, http://www.ascabos.io-bas.bg

ASCABOS increased public awareness and stimulated and motivated the utilization of operational oceanographic information in management and decision-making practices.
Considerable work has been performed on compiling meta-databases on the Black Sea environmental data, information and research within previous international initiatives and projects. To support and to strengthen the exchange between scientists, governmental managers and other users ASCABOS developed a Black Sea information system, containing all available metadata, validated and efficiently updated through the Internet.
ASCABOS organized a cost-effective VOS pilot programme, applying modern technologies and developments for data collection, transmission, storage, use and dissemination. The VOS programme responded to the GOOS demand for long-term monitoring of the marine ecosystems.

3. EC DG Env. MONINFO, Years: 2009-2010, Full name: "Environmental Monitoring of the Black Sea Basin: Monitoring and Information Systems for Reducing Oil Pollution",

http://www.blacksea-commission.org/_projects_observers_partners.asp#MONINFO.

Main objectives:

  • Improved information system for combating oil pollution
  • Enhanced monitoring system of operational and accidental pollution
  • Enhanced response capabilities, including risk management and emergency preparedness planning

BSC PS is implementing the project, project-specific staff is hired. Detailed information on the progress of implementation can be found in the 6th and 12th months reports on the MONINFO part of the BSC webpage,

4. EC FP7 UBSS, Years: 2009-2012, continuation of the BS SCENE project (2006-2008), Full name: "UP-GRADE Black Sea Scientific Network", (http://www.blackseascene.net/). Working under the standards of SeaDataNet: -http://www.seadatanet.org/         

1) To extend and strengthen significantly the existing Black Sea Scientific Network, including previous (under Black Sea SCENE) and new environmental and socio-economic research institutes and universities from the countries around the Black Sea and 2 EU member states and 2 International bodies. They will meet in regular workshops, together with partners from EU member states:

  • To discuss and to prepare long term arrangements for sustaining the Black Sea SCENE network and the Black Sea virtual data and information infrastructure
  • To strengthen and further improve exchange of knowledge, communication and discussions on environmental problems.
  • To join, coordinate and tune scientific input for the protection, rehabilitation and sustainable development of the Black Sea Ecosystem.

For new Institutions, including BSC PS

-     To assess the present quality of Black Sea datasets, managed by the regional partners, through inventory of Data Quality Control methods and comparison with EU standards and practices.

-     To harmonize the future quality of datasets by exploring and harmonizing common DQC and DQA methods.

-     To adopt and implement internationally agreed protocols for cataloguing and exchanging Black Sea datasets: collecting meta data and using XML formats for populating standardized meta-directories and preparing exchange formats for the data sets.

  • To promote, to disseminate, to maintain and to plan further future exploitation of the Black Sea SCENE virtual data and information infrastructure, inter alia by further increasing the public understanding, awareness and knowledge about the Black Sea environment. To illustrate the important role and impact of the Black Sea SCENE infrastructure.

2) To ensure Black Sea datacenters interoperability and to improve the exchange, availability and accessibility of scientific environmental data & information, through implementing common communication standards and adapted SeaDataNet technologies in the Black Sea virtual data & information infrastructure.

3) To improve exchange of quality comparable data & information and to ensure the quality, compatibility and coherence of the data issuing from so many sources through adoption and execution of standardized methodologies for data quality checking on partners data (data quality assessment on Black Sea partners data).

The meta data collected is stored in SeaDataNet, http://www.seadatanet.org/

SEADATANET has developed an efficient distributed Marine Data Management Infrastructure for the management of large and diverse sets of data deriving from in situ and remote observation of the seas and oceans.

Professional data centres, active in data collection, are constituting a Pan-European network providing on-line integrated databases of standardized quality.

The on-line access to in-situ and remote sensing data, meta-data and products is provided through a unique portal interconnecting the interoperable node platforms constituted by the SeaDataNet data centres.

The development and adoption of common communication standards and adapted technology ensure the platforms interoperability. The quality, compatibility and coherence of the data issuing from so many sources, is assured by the adoption of standardized methodologies for data checking, by dedicating part of the activities to training and preparation of synthesised regional and global statistical products from the most comprehensive in-situ and remote sensing data sets made available by the SeaDataNet partners.

Data, value added products and dictionaries serve wide uses: e.g. research, model initialisation, industrial projects, teaching, marine environmental assessment.

5. EC FP7 EnviroGRIDS,  Years : 2009-2013, Full name : "Building Capacity for a Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development" Project, (http://www.envirogrids.net/)

General objectives: The scientific aim of the EnviroGRIDS project is to assemble an observation system of the Black Sea catchment that will address several GEO Societal Benefit Areas within a changing climate framework. This system will incorporate a shared information system that operates on the boundary of scientific/technical partners, stakeholders and the public. It will contain an early warning system able to inform in advance decision-makers and the public about risks to human health, biodiversity and ecosystems integrity, agriculture production or energy supply caused by climatic, demographic and land cover changes on a 50-year time horizon.

Technical objectives: The generic technical objectives of the EnviroGRIDS project are to:

  • run a gap analysis of existing regional observation systems to prepare recommendations for improvement of networks of data acquisition in each region/country,
  • build capacity on observation systems in the Black Sea catchment,
  • improve regional network to coordinate the efforts of partners active in observation systems
  • link, gather, store, manage and distribute key environmental data,
  • develop the access to real time data from sensors and satellites,
  • create spatially explicit scenarios of key changes in land cover, climate and demography,
  • distribute large calculations and datasets on large computer clusters,
  • streamline the production of indicators on sustainability and vulnerability of societal benefits,
  • provide a standard for integrating data, models and information and communication tools,
  • provide policy-makers and citizens with early warning and decision support tools at regional, national and local levels.
  • produce innovative tools to visualize and interpret data and results of integrated models,
  • alert citizens concerning exposure to environmental risks,
  • build capacities in the implementation of many new standards and frameworks (INSPIRE, GEOSS, OGC).

Report on the gaps in the Black Sea catchment area observation systems and data available (contact point: V. Myroshnichenko: volodymyr.myroshnychenko@blacksea-commission.org_.

  1. EC FP7 MyOCEAN (GMES Marine Core Services), Years: 2009-2011, Full name:   Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting, http://www.myocean.eu.org/

MyOcean is the implementation project of the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Marine Core Service, aiming at deploying the first concerted and integrated pan-European capacity for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting.

During years 2009-2011, thanks to FP7 co-fundings, MyOcean will lead the setting up of this new European service, grown on past investments in research & development, system development and international collaborations.

MyOcean Service provides the best information available on the Ocean for the large scale (worldwide coverage) and regional scales (European seas), based on the combination of space and in situ observations, and their assimilation into 3D simulation models: temperature, salinity, currents, ice extent, sea level, primary ecosystems, etc.

MyOcean service is available:

  • anywhere (the service covers the whole globe)
  • at any depth (models give access to a 3D depiction)
  • at anytime (in real time, with short term forecast, and also past situations for at least the last 25 years)
  • to anyone (access to products is open and free). 

Maritime security, oil spill prevention, marine resources management, climate change, seasonal forecasting, coastal activities, ice sheet surveys, water quality and pollution are some of the targeted applications.

  1. EC EMODNET, maritime Policy Actions, DG Mare,  Years: 2009- , Full name: European Marine Observation and Data Network, (http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/emodnet_en.html)

The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) is a new initiative of the EC to assemble fragmented and inaccessible marine data into interoperable, contiguous and publicly available data streams for complete maritime basins. These data will be made available to public and private operators, allowing for the growth of commercial and non-commercial services based on the EMODNET data. EMODNET will provide data on scales defined by the regions and subregions of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), which aim is to achieve good environmental status in marine waters by 2020. One of the MSFD regions is the Black Sea. EMODNET data should be directly available through the Water Information System for Europe dealing with marine information (WISE-Marine)  and supporting the data and indicator needs for the initial assessments of marine waters required by member States in 2012 by the MSFD.

The preparatory actions for EMODNET include four projects (lots) - on hydrography, geology, chemistry and biology, which will set up the preliminary version of EMODNET - ur-EMODNET.  The last two projects are directly related to the Black Sea. Particularly, the chemical project, which is based on the SeaDataNet network of National Oceanographic Data Centers, has among participants six leading marine institutes from the Black Sea region. The projects will identify the main challenges in moving from an ur-EMODNET to an operational EMODNET. Some of the on-line map layers of the European Atlas of the Seas, which is being developed by EC, will be sourced from the ur-EMODNET. The ur-EMODNET will be operational throughout 2010 and 2011, collecting feedback from users on fitness for purpose and indicating how the definitive EMODNET might be set up.  Based on the knowledge gathered during this exploratory ur-EMODNET a strategy will be developed for moving ahead.

13. EC FP7 KnowSeas, Years: 2009-2012. Full name: Knowledge-based Sustainable Management for Europes Seas, http://www.knowseas.com/

Knowledge-based Sustainable Management for Europe's Seas (KnowSeas) is a Collaborative Project funded by the European Community under 7th Framework Programme. It has 30 partners from 15 countries and is coordinated by the Scottish Association for Marine Science.

The overall objective of the project is a comprehensive scientific knowledge base and practical guidance for the application of the Ecosystem Approach to the sustainable development of Europes regional seas. This will increase the evidence base available for decision makers and facilitate the practical implementation of the Ecosystem Approach, currently seen by some stakeholders as confusing and nebulous. It will be delivered through a series of specific sub-objectives that lead to a scientifically based suite of tools to assist policy makers and regulators with the practical application of the Ecosystem Approach. It is also expected to deliver high quality scientific outputs that advance our understanding of coupled social and ecological systems.

Data Base: Rapana venosa under discussion:

1.      History of invasion - donor area, when, where, how; Black Sea & worldwide

2.      Ecological effects of Rapana venosa introduction in the Black Sea (and a few notes regarding elsewhere) - biological characteristics of an invasive species and receptor basin, nature and magnitude of invasive impact, scientific evidence and speculation. Ongoing ecological dynamic change in Rapana population (e.g. what is reason for recent decrease in average Rapana size along the eastern Turkish Black Sea coast?).

3.      How does climate change modify the invasive impact of Rapana - observations and hypotheses?

4.      Destructive fisheries impact - impacts of fishing methods on demersal ecology, experiments with alternative fisheries methods.

5.      Identification of gaps in knowledge and scientific uncertainties.

6.      Socio-economic importance of Rapana as a valuable fisheries resource,

7.      Rapana fisheries, stock and population dynamics.

8.      What fisheries regulations and environmental policy relative to Rapana venosa do exist in Black Sea countries? If there are regulations, are they adequate? Management dilemma - population control and/or resource protection.

14. EC DABLAS, Years: 2001-2009, to be continued, Full name: Danube Black Sea Task Force , http://ec.europa.eu/environment/enlarg/dablas/index_en.htm

The DABLAS Task Force was set up in November 2001 with the aim to provide a platform for co-operation for the protection of water and water-related ecosystems in the Danube and Black Sea Region.

15. EC Mnemiopsis leidyi Database, Years: 2008 continuous, (http://ps-blacksea-commission.ath.cx/MLDB/)

The prototype of the Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi Database has been developed in a framework of the EC Black Sea SCENE Project by the IMS METU (Turkey) and IBSS NASU (Ukraine). Considering the importance of such database for understanding changes in the Black Sea Environment, leading data holders from the Black Sea countries under the umbrella of the Permanent Secretariat of the Black Sea Commission (BSC/PS) on voluntarily basis agreed to create and maintain joint Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi  and Beroe ovata Data Base (ML-BO-DB) based on this prototype.

The Mnemiopsis leidyi Database contains data on observations of invasive species ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi obtained in the Black Sea since 1991. Database is continuously updated, while more data holders are joining the activity. By the end of 2009 database contained 51 datasets (1721 stations, about 3000 samples).

        Link: http://ps-blacksea-commission.ath.cx/MLDB/

        Brief description: The Mnemiopsis leidyi Database (MLDB) contains data on abundance and biomass of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi collected in the Black Sea. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Agassiz, 1865) was first found in the Black Sea in early 1980-s. This species created the tremendous ecosystem damage and big economic losses in the region in the late 1980-s, 1990-s. It was recognized as one of the main ecological problems for the Black Sea ecosystem.

        Released: 2008, updated regularly

        Time period: 1991 - 2009

        Resolution: stations

        Coverage: Black Sea

        Areas of application: ecosystem studies and assessment, biodiversity

        Accessibility: free for data older 5 years, conditional for recent data

        Format: MS SQL database, ASCII

        Reported by: BSC PS

16. EC FP7 PEGASO, Years: 2010-2014, Full name: People for Ecosystem-based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and coast,  www

Main objectives:

  1. To construct an ICZM governance platform, to support the development of integrated policies for the coastal, marine and maritime realms of the Mediterranean and Black sea basins.
  2. To make an integrated regional assessment for the Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal and maritime areas.
  3. To refine and further develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone
  4. To test and validate the assessment tools at regional and local scales to understand both global and cumulative local trends and how they interact in specific coastal and marine regions.
  5. To establish and strengthen mechanisms for networking and capacity development so as to promote knowledge transfer and the long-term use of the project outputs
    1. EC DG Env. MONINFO Phase II, Years: 2010-2011, www.blacksea-commission.org

The project enables the coastal states to better prevent and respond to operational/accidental/illegal oil pollution. Within this long term policy approach, and in support of decision making toward reduction/elimination of oil pollution in the Black Sea, the project will pursue the following objectives:

  • Establishment of operational Regional Database and Information Platform (RDIP), as a component of BSIS, including expert system for oil pollution mitigation and counteraction activities,
  • Update of Environmental Sensitive Indices for the BS region,
  • Training experts and other users to work with the RDIP,
  • Populating of the RDIP with reliable data and information,
  • Implementing a satellite monitoring pilot study in detecting oil pollution (illegal, operational, accidental)
  • Development of a mechanism for aerial surveillance for confirmation of reported oil spills,
  • Internet based oil spill transport model,
  • Automatic Identification System (AIS) and backtracking,
  • Visualization of all geo-spatial information through GIS mapping,
  • Supporting oil pollution related activities of the SAP 2009,
  • Sustaining and further building of capacity in the region.

The second phase is oriented to practical aspects in facilitating and support of monitoring and information management of oil pollution in the Black Sea region. MONINFO 2 consists of the following work-packages:

  • WP 1. RDIP and  Expert System on oil pollution mitigation and counteraction activities,
  • WP 2. Application of a Web based model for oil pollution forecasting for the Black Sea,
  • WP 3. Regional Black Sea AIS data server,
  • WP 4. Remote sensing monitoring of oil pollution,
  • WP 5. Capacity building and sustainability.

III. Data bases with long-term time series data in the region

1.      NATO TU-Black Sea database

        Link: http://sfp1.ims.metu.edu.tr/

        Brief description: Black Sea inter-disciplinary multivariable historical database was created in framework of the NATO TU-Black Sea project in 1994-1997 and is maintained in framework of the NATO SfP ODBMS Black Sea Projects. It includes all main physical, chemical and biological variables for the entire Black Sea basin. Database covers the most crucial period in the history of the Black Sea ecosystem starting from the background situation in 1960 till the drastic changes occurred in 90s. All data included into the database were quality checked by qualified groups of regional experts, well acquainted with the Black Sea data. Each value of physical, chemical and bio-optical data is accompanied with the quality flag.

        Released: 2002

        Time period: 1956-2001

        Resolution: stations

        Coverage: Black Sea

        Areas of application: ecosystem studies and assessment

        Accessibility: free

        Format: ASCII (csv)

        Data source link: http://sfp1.ims.metu.edu.tr/ODBMSDB/

        Reported by: BSC PS

2.      Black Sea Oceanographic Database (BSOD)

        Brief description: The Black Sea Oceanographic Database (BSOD) was compiled on the base of the NATO TU-Black Sea database and MEDAR-MEDATLAS. The BSOD includes main physical, chemical and biological variables for the entire Black Sea basin (148 variables). The database includes data obtained at 74,532 oceanographic stations.

For more information contact: Sukru Besiktepe, Director of IMS METU, sukru@ims.metu.edu.tr.

        Released: 2005

        Time period: 1890 - 2003

        Resolution: stations

        Coverage: Black Sea

        Areas of application: ecosystem studies and assessment

        Accessibility: free, provided by request by Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University (www.ims.metu.edu.tr)

        Format: Paradox Database distributed on CD

        Reported by: BSC PS

3.      Hydro-meteorological database of DHMO

        Brief description: water levels, water temperature, measured water discharge, H/Q water discharge, water turbidity, suspended sediments, air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, wind velocity and direction, soil temperature, water quality, air quality, radioactivity

        Released: updated daily

        Time period:  mainly since 1960-present (water levels and temperature since 1921, water quality monthly since 1970, air quality since 1990, radioactivity since 1980)

        Resolution: actual measurements

        Coverage: Black Sea Basin - Lower Danube Region

        Areas of application:

        Accessibility: restricted

        Format: ASCII

        Data source link: mailto:dhmo@izm.odessa.ukrtel.net

        Reported by: DHMO

Additional information:

1. Medar/medatlas II (http://www.ifremer.fr/medar/) finished in 2002

2. NATO SfP ODBMS Black Sea Project (http://sfp1.ims.metu.edu.tr/) finished in 2002,  Relevant NATO Linkage Grant Updated interdisciplinary Black Sea database on a basis of recent international projects/cruises. (IMS METU/ MHI/ SIO RAS) 2004-2005, which created CD with joint ODBMS-MEDAR database the Black Sea Oceanographic Database (available on request from IMS METU)

3. ECOOP: European Coasta Seas Operational Observing and Forecasting System:   http://www.ecoop.eu/

IV. Availability of data/GIS in the Black Sea catchment area assessed through Internet search and in the frames of the EnviroGRIDS project, relevance to the needs in assessments per priority transboundary problems in the Black Sea: for more details contact: V. Myroshnichenko: <volodymyr.myroshnychenko@blacksea-commission.org>

Ref. Report: Myroshnychenko V. et al. 2010. EnviroGRIDS Gap Analysis Report (Phase I). Deliverable D2.2-1 (Black Sea Commission archive).

The legend for cells in the cross-tables presented further in this chapter is as follows:

A: Accessible data from this dataset can be accessed and used for non-commercial purposes;

E: Exist data exist but access to data is restricted or charged;

U: Useful data from the dataset are useful for cross-linked category, however to learn on data accessibility it is necessary to look at other cells in the same row whether they contain A or E.

NA: Not Applicable the cross-linked dataset is not applicable to current end-user needs category, for example, Georgians national datasets are not applicable to end-user needs of ICPDR

Empty cell: it means that linkage between dataset and end-user needs category does not exist or not identified.

 Global scale

Dataset name Category BSC priority transboundary problems Resolution Web link
Eutrophication Chemical pollution Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change
ESRI maps GIS A A   U A various http://www.esri.com/
UNIGE GIS datasets GIS E E   E E various  
VMap0 GIS A A   U A 1:1000000 http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap0_index.html
VMap1 GIS E E   U A 1:250000 http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap1_index.html
GRUMP Population A U   U U 30" http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/
GPW Population A U   U U   http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/
LandScan Population A U   U U 30" http://www.ornl.gov/sci/landscan/index.html
ASTER GDEM DEM A A       30m http://www.ersdac.or.jp/GDEM/E/2.html
SRTM DEM DEM A A       90m http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/
Globcover Land cover A A   A A 300m http://ionia1.esrin.esa.int/index.asp
MODIS Land Cover Type product Land cover A A   A A 500m https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/lpdaac/products/modis_products_table
DSMW v. 3.5 Soil E E   U U 1:5000000 http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/lwdms.stm
HWSD v 1.1 Soil A A   U U 1km http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/External-World-soil-database/HTML/index.html?sb=1
ERS/MetOp Soil Moisture Soil A A   U U 50km http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/radar/index.php?go=ascat
Global Runoff Database Hydrology A A     A at stations http://www.bafg.de/cln_016/nn_294146/GRDC/EN/Home/homepage__node.html?__nnn=true
Hydroweb Hydrology A A     A major water bodies and wetlands http://www.legos.obs-mip.fr/en/soa/hydrologie/hydroweb/
GPCP Precipitation Meteorology A A     A 1 http://precip.gsfc.nasa.gov/
TMPA (precipitation) Meteorology A A     A 0.25  
TRMM (rainfall) Meteorology A A     A 0.25 http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/data_dir/data.html
Global Rainfall Map Meteorology A A     A 0.1 http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/
WorldClim (precipitation, T) Climate A A     A 1km http://www.worldclim.org/
CRU TS 2.1 (precipitation, T, vapor pressure, cloud cover) Climate time series A A     A 1km http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/timm/grid/CRU_TS_2_1.html
Climate of the World (T, wind, pressure, precipitation etc) Climate stations data A A     A stations http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wdc/index.php
SST Ocean A U U U A 1km+ numerous web sites
Ocean color data (Chl) Ocean A U A A A 1km+ http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/
Ocean surface wind Ocean A A     A 25km http://manati.orbit.nesdis.noaa.gov/ascat/
Sea Level anomalies Ocean U U A A A   http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data/products/sea-surface-height-products/global/index.html
UNEP Geo Data Portal various themes U U U U U 1km+ / Country http://geodata.grid.unep.ch/webservices/
International Energy Agency (IEA) energy statistics Energy           Country http://data.iea.org/ieastore/statslisting.asp
PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform Disasters A A A A A events http://preview.grid.unep.ch/

EU/European scale

Dataset name Category BSC priority transboundary problems Resolution  
Eutrophication Chemical pollution   Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change      
EuroGlobalMap GIS E E     U E 1:1000000 http://www.eurogeographics.org/content/products-services-eurodem  
EuroRegionalMap GIS E E     U E 1:250000 http://www.eurogeographics.org/products-and-services/euroregionalmap  
EuroBoundaryMap v4.0 GIS E E     U E 1:100000 http://www.eurogeographics.org/products-and-services/euroboundarymap  
EuroDEM DEM A A         60m http://www.eurogeographics.org/content/products-services-eurodem  
CLC1990 raster Land cover U U     U A 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-clc1990-100-m-version-12-2009  
CLC2000 vector Land cover U U     U A 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-seamless-vector-database-1  
CLC2000 raster Land cover U U     U A 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-100-m-version-12-2009  
CLC2006 raster Land cover U U     U A 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2006-clc2006-100-m-version-12-2009  
Population density disaggregated with Corine land cover 2000 Population A U     U U 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density-disaggregated-with-corine-land-cover-2000-2  
ESBD V.2 Soil A A     U U 1:1000000 http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDBv2/index.htm  
ESBD V.2 raster Soil A A     U U 1km http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_data_1k_raster_intro/ESDB_1k_raster_data_intro.html  
Degree of soil sealing Soil A A     U U 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-fast-track-service-precursor-on-land-monitoring-degree-of-soil-sealing-100m  
EEA Waterbase Water quality A A   U U U rivers, water bodies, coastal waters several datasets at http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/  
Sediment discharges Water quality A A   U U U at stations http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/sediment-discharges  
Airbase Air quality A A     U U at stations http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/airbase-the-european-air-quality-database-1  
EMEP grids reprojected by EEA (emissions) Air quality A A     U U 50km http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/emep-grids-reprojected-by-eea  
Air pollutants (emissions) Air quality A A     U U country numerous data sources at http://www.eea.europa.eu/  
Greenhouse gases emissions Air quality, climate A A     U A country numerous data sources at http://www.eea.europa.eu/  
Eurostat Statistics Database Socio-economic A A   A U U country/ major provinces http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database  
Nature 2000 Protected areas       A A U   http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/natura-2000  
Nationally designated areas Protected areas       A A U 100m http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/nationally-designated-areas-national-cdda-4  
REABIC database Ecosystem, invasive species       A A U   http://www.reabic.net/map_europe.html  
GRID-Europa Datasets -GNV Climate, soils, vegetation, water, socio-economic, population, GIS A A   A A A various http://www.grid.unep.ch/data/data.php  
E-PRTR pollutant emissions to air, water and land A A   U U A country http://prtr.ec.europa.eu/  
                       
Dataset name Category BSC priority transboundary problems Resolution Web link
Eutrophication Chemical pollution Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change
Black Sea Information System (BSIS) Water quality, ecosystem, ICZM A A A A U stations / country mailto:secretariat@blacksea-commission.org
Black Sea Surveys data Sea water quality A A A A U stations mailto:secretariat@blacksea-commission.org
Black Sea TDA GIS GIS U U A A U 1:100000, 1:200000 mailto:secretariat@blacksea-commission.org
NATO TU-Black Sea database Ecosystem A A A A U stations http://sfp1.ims.metu.edu.tr/ODBMSDB/
Black Sea Oceanographic Database Ecosystem E E A A U stations For CD apply to IMS METU http://www.ims.metu.edu.tr/
Mnemiopsis leidyi Database Ecosystem, biodiversity     A A U stations http://ps-blacksea-commission.ath.cx/MLDB/
Black Sea SLA Sea level anomalies U U U A A 1/8 http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data/products/sea-surface-height-products/regional/m-sla-black-sea/index.html
Climatic Maps (T, Salinity, Density, O2, H2S) Climate A A U U A   http://www.ims.metu.edu.tr/SeaDataNet/indexclimat.asp?doc=inSituProductDescription.htm
Satellite Averaged Maps (SST, Chl) Climate A A U U A   http://www.ims.metu.edu.tr/SeaDataNet/indexsat.asp?doc=satelliteProductDescription.htm

Regional scale: Black Sea

 


V. Available observation systems, networks and services in the Black Sea, including its catchment area

Most of the existing observation systems are multipurpose, i.e. one observation system can produce different data types. Vice versa, data of the same type can be produced by different observation systems.

The European Directory of the Ocean-observing Systems (the EDIOS Directory) is at http://www.edios.org/, a unique searchable metadatabase. The EDIOS directory provides information on observing systems operating repeatedly, regularly and routinely in European waters, contains metadata on platforms, repeated ship-borne measurements, buoys, remote imagery, etc. EDIOS is an initiative of the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS, http://www.eurogoos.org/). The EDIOS directory currently holds well over 12,000 data entries, which are regularly updated.

Global observation systems

Category Observation system (instrument) / network SC priority transboundary problems
Eutrophication Chemical pollution Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change
Land cover, vegetation Landsat, Terra, Aqua, SPOT U U   A U
Soil moisture METOP A A      
Surface temperature NOAA A U A U A
Atmosphere Terra, Aqua U U     A
Elevations Terra (ASTER) A A      
Sea color, Chl, algal blooms Aqua (MODIS, EOS (MERIS) A A U U A
Weather Meteo satellites, Terra, Aqua, TRMM A A     A
Oil spills RADARSAT, ERS (SAR) E E U U  
Hi-resolution imagery SPOT, IKONOS, IRS etc U U U E  
Sea Level Heights Jason, Envisat U U     A
Sea wind METOP (ASCAT) U U     A
Disasters (flood, forest fire) ERS, Terra, Aqua U U U U E
Rainfall TRMM U U     A
Weather, climate, hydrology WMO Global Observing System  (GOS) comprises observing facilities on land, at sea, in the air and in outer space, owned and operated by the Member countries of WMO. U U U U E
State of the oceans Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) comprising of satellites, ARGO floats, autonomous data buoys, Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS), Global Sea-Level Observing System (GLOSS) to observe atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. U U     A
Weather, climate, hydrology WMO GTS (Global Telecommunication System) E E     E
Oceanography International Oceanographic Data Exchange (IODE) of IOC UNESCO A A A A A

Observation Systems of European scale

Category Observation system (instrument) BSC priority transboundary problems
Eutrophication Chemical pollution Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change
Satellite based data products Satellites of European Space Agency (ESA) E E U U E
GENESI-DR project data repositories A U U U A
Various data products Joint Reseash Centre (JRC) E E E E E
Weather, meteorology European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) U U     A
Flooding European Floods Alert System (EFAS) U U     U
Water Water Information System for Europe (WISE) U U U U U
River discharges European Terrestrial Network for River Discharge (ETN-R) E E     E
Invasive species European Research Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ERNAIS)     A A  
Protected areas NATURE 2000     A A  
Environment European Environmental Information and Observation Network (Eionet) E E E E E
European Environmental Agency A A   A  
Climate European Network of greenhouse gases         A
Pollution POPs European Monet network   E      

 

Black Sea Observation Systems / networks / programs

Category Observation system / network / program BSC priority transboundary problems
Eutrophication Chemical pollution Changes in marine living resources Biodiversity changes Climate change
State of the sea Black Sea Global Ocean Observing System (Black Sea GOOS);
MyOcean and ECOOP projects
A A     A
Sea level anomalies AVISO Black Sea A A     A
SST, Chl NOAA and Aqua satellites data processed at local data center (Marine Hidrophysical Institute, Ukraine) A A U U A
Weather Marine Hidrophysical Institute, Ukraine A A     A
Oceanography Black Sea Oceanographic Data and Information Network (ODIN Black Sea) A A A A A
State of environment and ecosystem Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIMAP) implemented by Black Sea countries A A A A A
Black Sea Scientific Network (Black Sea Scene project) A A A A A

Details of datasets quoted in the Tables above

 UNIGE GIS datasets

Brief description: various GIS datasets containing information on boundaries, population, watersheds, DEM (SRTM), etc. Released: update frequency varies depending on data type

Period: various

Resolution: various

Areas of application: environment management

Accessibility: depends on data type

Format: shape files

Reported by: UNIGE

 

VMap0

Link: http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap0_index.html

Brief description: Vector Map (VMap) Level 0 is an updated and improved version of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) Digital Chart of the World (DCW). The VMap Level 0 database provides worldwide coverage of vector-based geospatial data. It consists of geographic, attribute, and textual data stored on CD-ROM or as downloaded files. VMap Level 0 includes major road and rail networks, hydrologic drainage systems, utility networks (cross-country pipelines and communication lines), major airports, elevation contours, coastlines, international boundaries and populated places.

Released: ? (based on 1993 DCW data)

Resolution: 1:1,000,000

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free

Format: vector (shape files)

Download link: http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap0_download.html

 

VMap1

Link: http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap1_index.html

Brief description: Vector Map (VMap) Level 1 provides medium resolution worldwide coverage of vector-based geospatial data. Data content includes 10 thematic layers: boundaries and coastlines; elevation and contour lines; road and rail networks; hydrography; utility networks; vegetation cover; and so on. These themes are arranged in over 100 vector layers of information, with mass numbers of features, attributes, and geographic names appropriate to their respective scales. The VMAP1 data is divided into a rather complex global mosaic of 234 geographic zones, however at the present time only 57 of them are released to public. The Black Sea Catchment area is not released yet.

Released: 2004

Resolution: 1:250,000

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free

Format: vector (shape files)

Download link: http://www.mapability.com/info/vmap1_download.html

 

GRUMP

Link: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/ 

Brief description: Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) builds on GPWv3 by incorporating urban and rural information, allowing new insights into urban population distribution and the global extents of human settlements.

Released in 2005

Period: 1990 2000 (estimate) with 5 years step

Resolution: 30

Areas of application: research, policy making, and communications

Accessibility: free.

Format: .bil, grid, ascii

Download link: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/global.jsp

 

GPW

Link: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/ 

Brief description: Gridded Population of the World, version 3 (GPWv3) depicts the distribution of human population across the globe and includes population estimates to 2015.

Released in 2003

Period: 1990 2015 (estimate) with 5 years step

Resolution: 2.5 (in reality 4-100km depending on administrative units)

Areas of application: research, policy making, and communications

Accessibility: free.

Format: .bil, grid, ascii

Download link: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/global.jsp

 

LandScan

Link: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/landscan/index.html

Brief description: The LandScanTM Dataset comprises a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other information. LandScan has been developed as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

Release: 2008

Period: annually, with each new release superseding the previous

Resolution: 30

Areas of application: research, policy making, communications.

Accessibility: free for research and education (registration is required).

Format: .ESRI grid

 

ASTER G-DEM

Link: http://www.ersdac.or.jp/GDEM/E/2.html

Brief description: Global DEM for all the land area covered by ASTER.

Released in 2009

Resolution: 1 = ~30m

Areas of application:

Automated calculation of slope direction and angle, catchment area, faults, etc.

Flood risk areas can be estimated

Hydrology (water resource management)

Energy (oil resource exploration)

Accessibility: GDEM data will be provided free of charge to the users who utilize in 9 GEOSS societal benefit areas.

Format: GeoTIFF

Download link: http://www.gdem.aster.ersdac.or.jp/

Reported by: UAB

 

SRTM3 V2.1

Link: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/

Brief description: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 2000 obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth.

Released in 2009

Resolution: 3 = ~90m

Automated calculation of slope direction and angle, catchment area, faults, etc.

Flood risk areas can be estimated

Hydrology (water resource management)

Energy (oil resource exploration)

Accessibility: free.

Format: SRTM

Download link: http://dds.cr.usgs.gov/srtm/version2_1/

 

GLOBCOVER

Link: http://ionia1.esrin.esa.int/index.asp

Brief description: global land cover maps on base of observations from the 300m MERIS sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite mission, including 10 bi-monthly reflectances composites for period December 2004 - June 2006

1 annual reflectance composite for year 2005

22 land cover classes are defined with the UN Land Cover Classification System (LCCS).

Released in 2009 (Version 2.2)

Period: see above

Resolution: 300m

Areas of application: Deforestation/decertification monitoring, Habitats monitoring, etc

Accessibility: free for scientific purposes.

Format: HDF

Download link: ftp://us-ext-nas.eo.esa.int/regional

 

MODIS Land Cover Type

Link: https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/lpdaac/products/modis_products_table

Brief description: The MODIS Land Cover Type product contains multiple classification schemes, which describe land cover properties derived from observations spanning a years input of Terra and Aqua data. The primary land cover scheme identifies 17 land cover classes defined by the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP), which includes 11 natural vegetation classes, 3 developed and mosiacked land classes, and three non-vegetated land classes.

Released: updated yearly

Period: 2001-2007

Resolution: 500m

Areas of application: Lande cover change monitoring, Deforestation/decertification monitoring, Habitats monitoring. etc

Accessibility: free for scientific purposes, (acknowledgement of source is required)

Format: HDF-EOS

Download link: https://wist.echo.nasa.gov/api/

 

DSMW v. 3.6

Link: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/lwdms.stm

Brief description: the Digitized Soil Map of the World Including Derived Soil Properties (version 3.6) is based on the FAO/UNESCO Soil map of the world. The CD-ROM contains two types of files, DSMW map sheets and derived soil properties files with images derived from the Soil map of the World. DMSW consists of the data from 10 map sheets: Africa, North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Central and Northeast Asia, Near East, Far East, Southeast Asia, and Australiasia. The maps are available in four formats: two vector formats (ARC/INFO Native and Export) and two raster formats (ERDAS and IDRISI). The derived soil properties files include programs that interpret the maps in terms of parameters such as pH, organic carbon content, C/N ratio, clay mineralogy, soil depth, soil and terrain stability for specific crop production, soil moisture storage capacity and soil drainage class

Released: 2003

Resolution: 1:5,000,000

Accessibility: on request (for low cost)

Format: raster, ArcInfo

 

HWSD v. 1.1

Link: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/External-World-soil-database/HTML/index.html?sb=1

Brief description: the Harmonized World Soil Database (HSWD) v. 1.0 was compiled on the base of four source databases:the European Soil Database (ESDB), the 1:1 million soil map of China, various regional SOTER databases (SOTWIS Database), and the Soil Map of the World. The HWSD is composed of a GIS raster image file linked to an attribute database in Microsoft Access format. While these two components are separate data files, they can be linked through a commercial GIS system. The HWSD attribute database provides information on the soil unit composition for each of the 15773 soil mapping units. The database shows the composition of each soil mapping unit, and standardized soil parameters for top- and subsoil.

Released: 2009

Resolution: 1km raster. The spatial resolution of the SMUs varies by region depending on the source data. The best resolution represents approximately a 1:1 million map scale and can be found in China, the territory covered by ESDB (Europe and Russia), and Eastern and Southern Africa, which is included in the SOTWIS database. The DSMW (FAO-74) represents a 1:5 million map scale.

Accessibility: free

Format: raster

 

ERS/MetOp Soil Moisture

Link: http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/radar/index.php?go=ascat

Brief description: Global, coarse-resolution soil moisture data (25-50 km) are derived from backscatter measurements acquired with scatterometers onboard the satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 (1991 to present) and the three MetOp satellites (2006-2020). Two different product types are derived:

Level 2 products representing the soil moisture content within a thin soil surface layer (< 2 cm) during the time of overflight of the satellite (SSM),

Level 3 products representing the water content in the soil profile, regularly sampled in space and time (SWI).

Released:

Period: 1991-2007

Resolution: 50km

Accessibility: on request

Format: binary

Reported by: UNIGE

 

Global Runoff Database

Link: http://www.bafg.de/cln_016/nn_294146/GRDC/EN/Home/homepage__node.html?__nnn=true

Brief description: Global Runoff Database contains time series of daily and/or monthly river discharge data of more than 7300 stations from 156 countries, comprising around 280,000 station-years with an average time series length of about 38 years. The earliest data are from the year 1807, the most recent from the year 2008. The database is updated as soon as data are supplied by the national hydrological services, our primary data providers.

Released: updated yearly.

Period: 1807 2008 (estimate)

Resolution: hydrological stations

Areas of application: research

Accessibility: free for non-commercial uses under the conditions of GRDC's data policy.

Format: ASCII

Data link: http://www.bafg.de/cln_016/nn_294146/GRDC/EN/02__Services/01__RiverDischarge/riverdischarge__node.html?__nnn=true

Note: in GEOSS

Reported by: UNIGE

 

Hydroweb

Link: http://www.legos.obs-mip.fr/en/soa/hydrologie/hydroweb/

Brief description: Lakes, rivers and wetlands water levels from satellite altimetry

Period: since 1992 -

Resolution: major lakes, reservoirs and rivers

Areas of application: research

Accessibility: free

Format: . ascii

 

GPCP One -Degree Daily Precipitation Data Set

Link: http://precip.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Brief description: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project One-Degree Daily Precipitation Data Set (1DD Data Set) provides daily, global 1x1-deg gridded fields of precipitation totals for October 1996 through the delayed present. The 1DD draws upon several different data sources covering different areas of the globe. Every attempt has been made to make the complete record homogeneous, given the different available input sources.

Released: 2009.

Period: since 1996 - present

Resolution: 1x1

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free

Format: . binary grid

Data link: http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/gpcp/1dd-v1.1

 

TMPA

Link: http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=TRMM_3B42RT

Brief description: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) provides a calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites. TMPA is available both after and in real time.

Released:

Period: since 1998

Coverage: latitude band 50NS

Resolution: 0.25?

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free

Format:

Data link: http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=TRMM_3B42RT 

 

Global Rainfall Map

Link: http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/

Brief description: Global Rainfall Map by JAXA/EORC GSMaP Near Realtime System provides hourly global rainfall maps in near real time (about four hours after late from observation) as well as corresponding NRT rainfall data and Daily Accumulated Rainfall.

Released: 2008.

Period: since 2008 - present

Resolution: 0.1 (0.25 for Daily Accumulated Rainfall)

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free

Format: binary grid/ ASCII

Data link: GSMaP_NRT data are freely available from password protected ftp server. Please contact trmm_real@jaxa.jp to get data.

 

WorldClim

Link:  http://www.worldclim.org/

Brief description: WorldClim is a set of global climate layers (climate grids) with a spatial resolution of a square kilometer. They can be used for mapping and spatial modeling in a GIS or other computer programs. The climate elements considered were monthly precipitation and mean,

minimum, and maximum temperature.

Released: 2005

Period: since 1950 2000

Resolution: 1km

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free

Format: ESRI grids

Data link: http://www.worldclim.org/download

Reported by: UNIGE

 

CRU TS 2.1

Link: http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/timm/grid/CRU_TS_2_1.html

Brief description: The CRU TS 2.1 dataset comprises 1224 monthly grids of observed climate, for the period 1901-2002, and covering the global land surface at 0.5 degree resolution. There are nine climate variables available: daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, precipitation, wet day frequency, frost day frequency, vapour pressure and cloud cover.

Released: 2004

Period: since 1901 2002

Resolution: 0.5

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free for scientific purposes

Format: ASCII

Data link: http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/cru_ts_2.10/data_all/

Reported by: UNIGE

 

Climate of the World

Link:   http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wdc/index.php

Brief description:

The global surface summary of day product is produced by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, NC. The input data used in building these daily summaries are the Integrated Surface Data (ISD), which includes global data obtained from the USAF Climatology Center, located in the Federal Climate Complex with NCDC.  The latest daily summary data are normally available 1-2 days after the date-time of the observations used in the daily summaries.  The online data files begin with 1929, and are now at the Version 7 software level.  Over 9000 stations' data are typically available.

The daily elements included in the dataset (as available from each station) are:

Mean temperature (.1 Fahrenheit)

Mean dew point (.1 Fahrenheit)

Mean sea level pressure (.1 mb)

Mean station pressure (.1 mb)

Mean visibility (.1 miles)

Mean wind speed (.1 knots)

Maximum sustained wind speed (.1 knots)

Maximum wind gust (.1 knots)

Maximum temperature (.1 Fahrenheit)

Minimum temperature (.1 Fahrenheit)

Precipitation amount (.01 inches)

Snow depth (.1 inches)

Indicator for occurrence of: 

Fog

Rain or Drizzle

Snow or Ice Pellets

Hail

Thunder

Tornado/Funnel Cloud

Number of stations per country in 2010:

Bulgaria - 37

Georgia - 12

Romania - 14

Russia - ~15 in BSC

Turkey - ~30 in BSC

Ukraine - 21

Monthly issues contains monthly mean temperature, pressure, precipitation, vapor pressure, and sunshine for approximately 2,000 surface data collection stations worldwide and monthly mean upper air temperatures, dew point depressions, and wind Velocities for approximately 500 observing sites. This is the final quality controlled copy and generally has a 4 - 6 month time lag.

Released: 2006

Period: since 1929 present (surface summary of day product)

Resolution: Stations

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free/conditional (see website)

Format: ASCII

Data link: ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/gsod/ (or use web interface to select data).

 

SST

Link:  numerous web sites, e.g.  http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/; http://www.ghrsst.org/index.htm.

Released: updated daily

 

OceanColor

Link:   http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/

 

Ocean Surface Vector Winds

Link:   http://manati.orbit.nesdis.noaa.gov/ascat/

 

Sea Level Anomalies

Link: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data/products/sea-surface-height-products/global/index.html

Period: 1992 -

Resolution: 20 gridded from along track data

Accessibility: free

 

UNEP Geo Data Portal

Link:  http://geodata.grid.unep.ch/

Brief description: The GEO Data Portal is the authoritative source for data sets used by UNEP and its partners in the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) report and other integrated environment assessments. Its online database holds more than 500 different variables, as national, subregional, regional and global statistics or as geospatial data sets (maps), covering themes like Freshwater, Population, Forests, Emissions, Climate, Disasters, Health and GDP.

Released: updated yearly

Period: 1950 -2050

Resolution: 1km+, per country / per region (depending on data type)

Areas of application: weather, climate change

Accessibility: free/conditional (see website)

Format: ASCII

Data link: http://geodata.grid.unep.ch/webservices/

Reported by: UNIGE

 

PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform

Link:  http://preview.grid.unep.ch/

Brief description: The PREVIEW Global Risk Data Platform is a multiple agencies effort to share spatial data information on global risk from natural hazards. Users can visualise, download or extract data on past hazardous events, human & economical hazard exposure and risk from natural hazards. It covers tropical cyclones and related storm surges, drought, earthquakes, biomass fires, floods, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions.

Released: updated yearly

Period: 1975-2008

Resolution: events

Areas of application: disasters management

Accessibility: free

Format: shape files, ASCII

Data link: http://preview.grid.unep.ch/index.php?preview=data&lang=eng

Reported by: UNIGE

EuroGlobalMap

Link: http://www.eurogeographics.org/content/products-services-eurodem

Brief description: EuroGlobalMap is a topographic dataset at the scale 1:1 Million and it covers 32 countries. It contains 6 themes (including a total of 23 feature classes):

Administrative boundaries

Hydrography

Transport

Settlements

Elevation

Geographical names Product Formats

Released: 2010

Resolution: 1:1,000,000.

Coverage: Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Croatia, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark incl Greenland, Faroe Islands, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Andorra, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine.

Areas of application: geo-market analysis, socio-economic analysis, demographic analysis, asset management, geo-referencing cross-border data.

Accessibility: licensed (license costs from 150 per country)

Format: Shape files (ETRS 89)

 

EuroRegionalMap

Link: http://www.eurogeographics.org/products-and-services/euroregionalmap

Brief description: EuroRegionalMap contains following themes: administrative boundaries, hydrography, transport, settlements, vegetation, named locations, miscellaneous(monuments, power lines, towers etc).

Released: 2009

Resolution:  1:250,000

Coverage: EU 27 (besides Bulgaria), plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Faeroe Islands and the Republic of Moldova.

Areas of application: marketing planning, service provision and retail site location, environmental analysis, vehicle routing, map backdrop against which to display specific information.

Accessibility: licensed (license cost vary from 25,000 to 137,000)

Format: raster or triangular irregular network (ERTS 89)

 

EuroBoundaryMap v4.0

Link: http://www.eurogeographics.org/products-and-services/euroboundarymap

Brief description: EuroBoundaryMap v4.0 is a seamless geo database at the scale 1:100 000. It contains geometry, names and codes of administrative and statistical units.

Released: 2009

Resolution:  1:100,000

Coverage: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark (incl. Faroe Islands and Greenland), Estonia, Finland, France (incl. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion and Monaco), Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy (incl. San Marino and Vatican City), Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (incl. Andorra and Gibraltar), Sweden, Switzerland (incl. Liechtenstein), The Netherlands, Ukraine.

Areas of application: geo-market analysis, socio-economic analysis, demographic analysis, asset management, geo-referencing cross-border data.

Accessibility: licensed (license cost from 200 per country)

Format: Shape files (ETRS 89)

 

EuroDEM

Link: http://www.eurogeographics.org/content/products-services-eurodem

Brief description: EuroDEM v1.0 is a digital representation of the ground surface topography of Europe. It describes the distribution of terrain or 'bare earth' heights. This does not include 'first surface' elevations such as vegetation and manmade structures.

Released: 2010

Resolution:  ~60m. Vertical accuracy of 8 to 10 metres.

Coverage: EU 27, the four EFTA countries (Iceland, Leichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) as well as Croatia, Kosovo, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Moldova and the Kaliningrad area.

Accessibility: licensed (license cost vary from 30,000 to 750,000)

Format: raster or triangular irregular network (ETRS 89)

 

Corine land cover (CLC1990) 100 m - version 12/2009 (EU without Scandinavia and Britain)

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-clc1990-100-m-version-12-2009 

Brief description: Raster data on land cover for the CLC1990 inventory

Released in 2009

Resolution: 100m

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: GeoTiff

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-clc1990-100-m-version-12-2009

Reported by: UAB

 

Corine Land Cover 2000 seamless vector database (EU)

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-seamless-vector-database-1

Brief description: Corine land cover 2000 is the year 2000 update of the first CLC database which was finalised in the early 1990s as part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine)

Released in Oct 2009

Resolution:  ~100m

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: shape files

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-seamless-vector-database-1

Reported by: UAB

 

Corine land cover 2000 (CLC2000) 100 m - version 12/2009 (EU)

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-100-m-version-12-2009 

Brief description: Raster data on land cover for the CLC2000 inventory

Released in 2009

Resolution: 100m

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: GeoTiff

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-100-m-version-12-2009

Reported by: UAB

 

Corine land cover 2006 (CLC2006) 100 m - version 12/2009

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2006-clc2006-100-m-version-12-2009

Brief description: Raster data on land cover for the CLC2006 inventory. Coverage: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia.

Released in 2009

Resolution: 100m

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: GeoTiff

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2006-clc2006-100-m-version-12-2009

Reported by: UAB

 

Population density disaggregated with Corine land cover 2000

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density-disaggregated-with-corine-land-cover-2000-2 

Brief description: Raster data on land cover for the CLC2006 inventory. Coverage: EU27 + Croatia + Liechtenstein.

Released in 2009

Resolution: 100m

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: GeoTiff

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density-disaggregated-with-corine-land-cover-2000-2 

 

ESDB v2.0

Link: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDBv2/index.htm

Brief description: European Soil Database v2.0, consisting of four components: the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE), a PedoTransfer Rules Database (PTRDB), the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE) and documentation of the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES). The database contains a list of Soil Typological Units (STU). Besides the soil names they represent, these units are described by variables (attributes) specifying the nature and properties of the soils: for example the texture, the water regime, the stoniness, etc.

Coverage: Europe except Georgia and Turkey

Released: 2006

Resolution: 1:1,000,000

Accessibility: free of charge upon registration

Format: shape files

Download link: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

 

ESDB v2.0 Raster version

Link: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_data_1k_raster_intro/ESDB_1k_raster_data_intro.html

Brief description: derived from ESDB v. 2.0

Coverage: EU27

Released: 2006

Resolution: 1x1km

Accessibility: free of charge upon registration

Format: shape files

Download link: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ESDB_Archive/ESDB_Data_Distribution/ESDB_data.html

 

EEA Fast Track Service Precursor on Land Monitoring - Degree of soil sealing 100m

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-fast-track-service-precursor-on-land-monitoring-degree-of-soil-sealing-100m   

Brief description: Raster data set of built-up and non built-up areas including continuous degree of soil sealing ranging from 0 - 100% in aggregated spatial resolution (100 x 100 m). Coverage: EU27, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey.

Released: 2009

Resolution: 100m

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: geotiff?

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-fast-track-service-precursor-on-land-monitoring-degree-of-soil-sealing-100m

 

Waterbase Rivers

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/waterbase-rivers-5     

Brief description: Waterbase contains timely, reliable and policy-relevant data collected from EEA member countries through the WISE-SoE data collection (formerly known as Eurowaternet and Eionet-Water) process. This dataset contains annual data on hazardous substances in rivers.

Coverage: EU15, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (1962-2007)

Resolution: by station/WaterbaseID

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/waterbase-rivers-5

Reported by: UAB

 

Waterbase Lakes

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/waterbase-rivers-5     

Brief description: Waterbase contains timely, reliable and policy-relevant data collected from EEA member countries through the WISE-SoE data collection (formerly known as Eurowaternet and Eionet-Water) process. This dataset contains seasonal and annual data on water quality and raw data of hazardous substances in lakes.

Coverage: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom.

Released: 2009 (1931-1939, 1949-2007)

Resolution: by station/WaterbaseID

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Reported by: UAB

 

Waterbase - Transitional, coastal and marine waters

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/waterbase-transitional-coastal-and-marine-waters-5      

Brief description: Waterbase contains timely, reliable and policy-relevant data collected from EEA member countries through the WISE-SoE data collection (formerly known as Eurowaternet and Eionet-Water) process. This dataset contains annual data on discharges to Transitional, coastal and marine waters, inputs (loads) and hazardous substances in water, biota and sediments.

Coverage: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom.

Released: 2009 (1978-2007)

Resolution: by country

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Reported by: UAB

 

Waterbase - Groundwater

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/waterbase-groundwater-5

Brief description: Waterbase contains timely, reliable and policy-relevant data collected from EEA member countries through the WISE-SoE data collection (formerly known as Eurowaternet and Eionet-Water) process. This dataset contains annual data on bodies and quality.

Coverage: EU27, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Montenegro, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (1960-2007)

Resolution: by country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Reported by: UAB

 

Sediment discharges from European rivers

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/sediment-discharges

Brief description: This dataset is composed of 3 layers: 1) GISCO watersheds, 2) Total Suspended Solid (TSS) delivery downstream within the sea and 3) Sediment flow from quality stations.

Coverage: EU15, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia.

Released: 2005

Resolution: at stations

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: shape files

 

AirBase - The European air quality database

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/airbase-the-european-air-quality-database-1

Brief description: AirBase is the air quality information system maintained by the EEA through the European topic centre on Air and Climate Change. It contains air quality data delivered annually under 97/101/EC Council Decision establishing a reciprocal exchange of information and data from networks and individual stations measuring ambient air pollution within the Member States (EoI Decision).

Coverage: EU27, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (1969-2007)

Resolution: by station

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

 

Interpolated air quality data

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/interpolated-air-quality-data-1

Brief description: The maps are derived from the measurement data at the stations in AirBase in combination with modelled output from EMEP and with other parameters. These maps are assessment tools for use at the European scale. They may show results which differ from assessments made at national scale.

Coverage: EU27, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, yu.

Released: 2008 (2004-2005)

Resolution: ~50km

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .shp

Reported by: UAB

 

EEA aggregated and gap filled air pollutant data

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-aggregated-and-gap-filled-air-emission-data-3

Coverage: EU27, Croatia, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Serbia, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (period 1990-2007)

Resolution: per country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-aggregated-and-gap-filled-air-emission-data-3

 

EMEP grids reprojected by EEA

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/emep-grids-reprojected-by-eea

Brief description: EEA has reprojected the grid used by EMEP for analyses on air emissions (150*150 km2 and 50*50 km2 grids covering Europe).

Coverage: EU27, Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Republic of, Monaco, Montenegro, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, yu.

Released: 2005

Resolution: 150km, 50km

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .shp

 

National Emission Ceilings (NEC) Directive Inventory

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emission-ceilings-nec-directive-inventory-4

Brief description: Data on emissions of air pollutants (NH3, NMVOC, NOX, SO2) reported annually by MSs to the EC (with copies to EEA) under Directive 2001/81/EC.

Coverage: EU27.

Released: 2009 (period 1990-2007)

Resolution: per country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Reported by: UAB

 

National emissions reported to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention)

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-convention-on-long-range-transboundary-air-pollution-lrtap-convention-3  

Brief description: Data on emissions of air pollutants submitted to the LRTAP Convention and copied to EEA and ETC/ACC. Coverage: EU27, Croatia, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland.

Released: 2009 (period 1980-2007)

Resolution: per country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-convention-on-long-range-transboundary-air-pollution-lrtap-convention-3

 

National emissions reported to the UNFCCC and to the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-3    

Brief description: Data on greenhouse gas emissions and removals, sent by countries to UNFCCC and the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (EU Member States). Coverage: EU27, Croatia, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (1985-2007)

Resolution: by country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-3

 

National emissions reported to the UNFCCC and to the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-3    

Brief description: Data on greenhouse gas emissions and removals, sent by countries to UNFCCC and the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (EU Member States). Coverage: EU27, Croatia, Turkey.

Released: 2009 (1985-2007)

Resolution: by country

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .mdb

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/national-emissions-reported-to-the-unfccc-and-to-the-eu-greenhouse-gas-monitoring-mechanism-3

 

Eurostat Statistics Database

Link: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database

Brief description: Detailed statistics on the EU and candidate countries on following themes:

General and regional statistics

Economy and finance

Population and social conditions

Industry, trade and services

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

External Trade

Transport

Environment and energy

Science and technology

Coverage: EU and candidate countries.

Resolution: country/major country regions

Areas of application: comprehensive analysis of countries development, trends, etc.

Accessibility: aggregated data freely accessible while microdata (data, which contain information about individual statistical units) are confidential. Access to anonymised microdata available at Eurostat only for scientific purposes.

Format: ASCII

 

Nature 2000

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/natura-2000

Brief description: Natura 2000 is the key instrument to protect biodiversity in the European Union. It is an ecological network of protected areas, set up to ensure the survival of Europe's most valuable species and habitats. Natura 2000 is based on the 1979 Birds Directive and the 1992 Habitats Directive. The spatial data (borders of sites) submitted by each Member State is integrated into a spatial database and, after validation with a specifically developed GIS tool, linked to the descriptive data.

Coverage: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.

Resolution:

Areas of application:

Accessibility: free

Format: GIS, mdb

 

Nationally designated areas (National - CDDA)

Link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/nationally-designated-areas-national-cdda-4 

Brief description: The European inventory of nationally designated areas holds information about protected sites and about the national legislative instruments, which directly or indirectly create protected areas. Coverage: EU27, Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Moldova, Republic of, Monaco, Montenegro, Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan (BSC is totally covered).

Released: 2009 (previous versions 2002-2008)

Resolution: ~100m

Accessibility: free of charge provided the source is acknowledged

Format: .shp

Download link: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/nationally-designated-areas-national-cdda-4

 

REABIC database

Link: http://www.reabic.net/map_europe.html 

Brief description: The Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC) database provides on-line information on biological invasions.

Released: 2001

Resolution: actual observations

Areas of application: ecosystem, biodiversity

Accessibility: free (detailed information on request)

 

GRID-Europa Datasets -GNV

Link:   http://www.grid.unep.ch/data/data.php 

Brief description: Historical GRID data collection on climate, soils, vegetation, water, socio-economic, human population, boundaries, etc

Released: update frequency varies depending on data type

Period: various

Resolution: various

Areas of application: environment management

Accessibility: 80 % free

 Format: shape files, ASCII

Data link: http://www.grid.unep.ch/data/data.php

Reported by: UNIGE

Annex II.  BSIMAP mandatory and optional parameters

 

Table 1. BSC data requirements

Data Name Requirements
Eutrophication/Nutrient Enrichment  
Nutrients loads from point and diffuse sources River dischargesMunicipal discharges (coastal zone)Industrial sources (coastal zone)Atmospheric deposition to the Black Sea 
Nutrients, oxygen in sea water  
Data on algal blooms  
Chemical Pollution  
Pollution loads from point and diffuse sources River dischargesMunicipal discharges (coastal zone)Industrial sources (coastal zone)Atmospheric deposition to the Black Sea 
Concentration of pollutants in sea water, sediments, and biota Parameters defined in BSIMAP (see Tables further)
Oil spills Data of satellite and aerial surveillance, accidents
Data for modeling of oil spill propagation Meteorological data, SST, altimetry, wind, currents with best available resolution
Changes in Marine Living Resources  
Stocks of commercially important fish species  
Catches and by-catches  
Aquaculture production  
Fishing fleet capacity  
Biodiversity Changes/Habitats Loss  
Phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos  
Indicator species  
Invasive alien species  
Habitats population dynamics data  
Habitats mapping  
Land cover change Black Sea coastal zone
Coastline change  
Climate Change  
SST  
Chlorophyll  
Data of oceanographic observations in open sea  
Data from automatic buoys (e.g. Argo)  

1. PMA - Eutrophication

 

Media:                                    Water

General English   Mandatory Optional
Country Reporting   +  
  UA Ukraine      
  RO Romania      
  BG Bulgaria      
  TU Turkey      
  GE - Georgia      
  RU - Russian Federation      
Region large region   +  
Sampling location local site name   +  
N coordinate North, 45º 07,998'     +
E coordinate East, 29º 41,317'     +
Ndec coordinate North, decimal, 43,5678   +  
Edec coordinate East, decimal, 39,7306   +  
year year of sampling   +  
month month of sampling   +  
day day of sampling   +  
depth of station depth, m   +  
depth of sampling depth of sampling, m   +  
layer layer:   +  
  1 surface      
  2 - intermediate      
  3- near bottom      
Hydrology        
Temp water temperature, (deg. C)   +  
salinity salinity, ()   +  
     
pH Hydrogen ion concentration (pH)   +  
O2 % Dissolved oxygen, percentage of saturation, (%)   +  
O2 Dissolved oxygen, (mol/l O2)   +  
TSS Total Suspended Solids, (mg/l)     +
Secci disk Transparency according Secci disk, (m)     +
BOD5 Biological Oxygen Demand, 5 days, (mol/l O2)     +
TOC Total Organic Carbon, (mg/l)     +
H2S Hydrogen sulphates, (mg/l)   +  
P (PO4) Phosphates P (PO4), (mol/l P)   +  
P total Phosphorus total, (mol/l P)   +  
N (NH4) Ammonia N (NH4), (mol/l N)   +  
N (NO2) Nitrite N (NO2), (mol/l N)   +  
N (NO3) Nitrate N (NO3), (mol/l N)   +  
N total Nitrogen total, (mol/l N)   +  
Si (SiO4) Silicates Si (SiO4), (mol/l Si)   +  
           

2. PMA - Pollution

Media                                     Water

General English   Mandatory Optional
Heavy Metals        
Fe Iron Fe, (μg/l)     +
Mn Manganese Mn, (μg/l)     +
Zn Zinc Zn, (μg/l)     +
Co Cobalt Co, (μg/l)     +
As Arsenic As, (μg/l)     +
Hg Mercury Hg, (μg/l)   +  
Cu Copper Cu, (μg/l)   +  
Cd Cadmium Cd, (μg/l)   +  
Pb Lead Pb, (μg/l)   +  
Ni Nickel Ni, (μg/l)     +
Cr Chromium Cr, (μg/l)     +
Pesticides        
DDT DDT (ng/l)     +
DDD DDD (ng/l)     +
DDE DDE (ng/l)     +
DDT total DDT total, (ng/l)     +
α-HCH α-HCH, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, (ng/l)     +
β-HCH β-HCH, (ng/l)     +
γ-HCH (Lindane) γ-HCH, lindane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, (ng/l)     +
HCH total HCH total, (ng/l)     +
metaphos metaphos, (ng/l)     +
chlorophos chlorophos, (ng/l)     +
phosalone phosalone, (ng/l)     +
hexachlorobenzene hexachlorobenzene, (ng/l)     +
heptachlor heptachlor, (ng/l)     +
aldrin aldrin, (ng/l)     +
octachlorstyrene octachlorstyrene, (ng/l)     +
heptachlorepoxide heptachlorepoxide, (ng/l)     +
trans-chlordane trans-chlordane, (ng/l)     +
cis-chlordane cis-chlordane, (ng/l)     +
transnonachlor transnonachlor, (ng/l)     +
trifluralin trifluralin, (ng/l)     +
mirex mirex, (ng/l)     +
photo-mirex photo-mirex, (ng/l)     +
cis-nonachlor cis-nonachlor, (ng/l)     +
PCB        
CB 18 CB 18, (ng/l)     +
CB 28 CB 28, (ng/l)     +
CB 31 CB 31, (ng/l)     +
CB 52 CB 52, (ng/l)     +
CB 99 CB 99, (ng/l)     +
CB 101 CB 101, (ng/l)     +
CB 105 CB 105, (ng/l)     +
CB 118 CB 118, (ng/l)     +
CB 128 CB 128, (ng/l)     +
CB 138 CB 138, (ng/l)     +
CB 153 CB 153, (ng/l)     +
CB 156 CB 156, (ng/l)     +
CB 170 CB 170, (ng/l)     +
CB 180 CB 180, (ng/l)     +
CB 183 CB 183, (ng/l)     +
CB 187 CB 187, (ng/l)     +
CB 195 CB 195, (ng/l)     +
CB 209 CB 209, (ng/l)     +
PCBs total PCBs total, (ng/l)     +
TPHs+PAH        
TPHs Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, (μg/l)   +  
phenols Phenols, (μg/l)     +
detergents Detergents, (μg/l)     +
naphtalene Naphtalene, (ng/l)     +
acenaphthylene Acenaphthylene, (ng/l)     +
fluorene Fluorene, (ng/l)     +
acenaphthene Acenaphthene, (ng/l)     +
phenanthrene Phenanthrene, (ng/l)     +
anthracene Anthracene, (ng/l)     +
fluoranthene Fluoranthene, (ng/l)     +
pyrene Pyrene, (ng/l)     +
benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)anthracene, (ng/l)     +
chrysene Chrysene, (ng/l)     +
benzo(b)fluoranthrene Benzo(b)fluoranthrene, (ng/l)     +
benzo(k)fluoranthrene Benzo(k)fluoranthrene, (ng/l)     +
benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(a)pyrene, (ng/l)     +
dibenzo(a,h)anthracene Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, (ng/l)     +
indeno(1,2,3cd)pyrene Indeno(1,2,3cd)pyrene, (ng/l)     +
benzo(g,h,i)perylene Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, (ng/l)     +
PAHs total Total polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs total, (ng/l)     +
Radioactivity        
Cs Cesium, (bekkerels/l)     +
Tr Torium, (bekkerels/l)     +
Sr Strontium, (bekkerels/l)     +

3. PMA - Pollution

Media                                     Bottom Sediments

General English Mandatory Optional
BS description description of bottom sediments (EEA classification)  +  
  M - Mud    
  FS - Fine Sand    
  MS - Middle Sand    
  CS - Coarse Sand    
   G - Gravel    
granulometry the role of different size classes in total weight of BS   +
Chemistry      
TOC Total Organic Carbon (dry weight, %)   +
TOC-CL Total Organic Carbon (сalcination losses, μg/g)   +
P total Phosphorus total, (g/g)   +
Heavy Metals      
Fe Iron Fe, (μg/g)   +
Al Aluminium Al, (μg/g)   +
Mn Manganese Mn, (μg/g)   +
Zn Zinc Zn, (μg/g)   +
Co Cobalt Co, (μg/g)   +
V Vanadium V, (μg/g)    
As Arsenic As, (μg/g)   +
Ba Barium Ba, (μg/g)   +
Cu Copper Cu, (μg/g) +  
Cd Cadmium Cd, (μg/g) +  
Pb Lead Pb, (μg/g) +  
Ni Nickel Ni, (μg/g)   +
Cr Chromium Cr, (μg/g)   +
Li Litium Li, (μg/g)   +
Hg Mercury Hg, (μg/g) +  
Pesticides      
DDT DDT (ng/g) +  
DDD DDD (ng/g) +  
DDE DDE (ng/g) +  
DDT total DDT total, (ng/g) +  
α-HCH α-HCH, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, (ng/g) +  
β-HCH β-HCH, (ng/g) +  
γ-HCH (Lindane) γ-HCH, lindane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, (ng/g) +  
HCH total HCH total, (ng/g) +  
metaphos metaphos, (ng/g)   +
chlorophos chlorophos, (ng/g)   +
phosalone phosalone, (ng/g)   +
hexachlorobenzene hexachlorobenzene, (ng/g)   +
heptachlor heptachlor, (ng/g)   +
aldrin aldrin, (ng/g)   +
octachlorstyrene octachlorstyrene, (ng/g)   +
heptachlorepoxide heptachlorepoxide, (ng/g)   +
trans-chlordane trans-chlordane, (ng/g)   +
cis-chlordane cis-chlordane, (ng/g)   +
transnonachlor transnonachlor, (ng/g)   +
trifluralin trifluralin, (ng/g)   +
mirex mirex, (ng/g)   +
photo-mirex photo-mirex, (ng/g)   +
cis-nonachlor cis-nonachlor, (ng/g)   +
CB 18 CB 18, (ng/g)   +
CB 28 CB 28, (ng/g)   +
CB 31 CB 31, (ng/g)   +
CB 52 CB 52, (ng/g)   +
CB 99 CB 99, (ng/g)   +
CB 101 CB 101, (ng/g)   +
CB 105 CB 105, (ng/g)   +
CB 118 CB 118, (ng/g)   +
CB 128 CB 128, (ng/g)   +
CB 138 CB 138, (ng/g)   +
CB 153 CB 153, (ng/g)   +
CB 156 CB 156, (ng/g)   +
CB 170 CB 170, (ng/g)   +
CB 180 CB 180, (ng/g)   +
CB 183 CB 183, (ng/g)   +
CB 187 CB 187, (ng/g)   +
CB 195 CB 195, (ng/g)   +
CB 209 CB 209, (ng/g)   +
PCBs total PCBs total, (ng/g) +  
TPHs      
TPHs Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, (μg/g) +  
phenols Phenols, (mg/g) +  
detergents Detergents, (mg/g)    
PAH      
naphtalene Naphtalene, (ng/g)   +
acenaphthylene Acenaphthylene, (ng/g)   +
fluorene Fluorene, (ng/g)   +
acenaphthene Acenaphthene, (ng/g)   +
phenanthrene Phenanthrene, (ng/g)   +
anthracene Anthracene, (ng/g)   +
fluoranthene Fluoranthene, (ng/g)   +
pyrene Pyrene, (ng/g)   +
benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)anthracene, (ng/g)   +
chrysene Chrysene, (ng/g)   +
benzo(b)fluoranthrene Benzo(b)fluoranthrene, (ng/g)   +
benzo(k)fluoranthrene Benzo(k)fluoranthrene, (ng/g)   +
benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(a)pyrene, (ng/g)   +
dibenzo(a,h)anthracene Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, (ng/g)   +
indeno(1,2,3cd)pyrene Indeno(1,2,3cd)pyrene, (ng/g)   +
benzo(g,h,i)perylene Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, (ng/g)   +
PAHs total Total polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs total, (ng/g)   +
Radioactivity      
Cs Cesium, (bekkerels/l)   +
Tr Torium, (bekkerels/l)   +
Sr Strontium, (bekkerels/l)   +

 

4. PMA - Bathing Water Quality

 

Media                         Water

Total  Coliforms Op
Fecal Coliforms Op
Fecal Streptococci Op
Visual Observations Op

EEA Indicator adopted.

5. CBD - Biodiversity change and decline, habitats destruction

Media                         Water and Sediments

 BIOTA  
   
Chl a m
Phytoplankton m
Zooplankton m
Indicator species (such as Noctiluca, etc.) m
Invasive species m
Macrophytobenthos m
Macrozoobenthos m
Habitats m
Fish (see FOMLR) m

5. PMA - Contamination of Biota

Media             Bivalves, meat

Anchovies, meat

Sprat, meat

Turbot, meat

Horse mackerel, meat 

 Contaminant  
   
Cd m
Cu m
Hg m
Pb m
DDT m
DDD m
DDE m
Lindane m
PCBs m
Phenols Chlorinated op
Co op
Zn op
Fe op
Ni op
Cr op
PAHs op
Cs op
Tr op
Sr op
Total radioactivity op

 
6. LBS - Land Based Sources of Pollution

 

Mandotory: Pressures from Hot Spots (rivers, municipal and industrial sources) (all parameters in the Table below)

 

Estimated loads per year UNIT Frequency of observations per year
Dissolved oxygen    
Nitrate (N-NO3) kilotonnes  
Nitrite (N-NO2) kilotonnes  
Orthophosphate kilotonnes  
Total Nitrogen kilotonnes  
Total Phosphorus kilotonnes  
Ammonia kilotonnes  
Zinc (Zn) - Dissolved tonnes  
Copper (Cu) - Dissolved tonnes  
Chromium (Cr) - Dissolved tonnes  
Lead (Pb) - Dissolved tonnes  
Cadmium (Cd) - Dissolved tonnes  
Mercury (Hg) - Dissolved tonnes  
Nickel (Ni) - Dissolved tonnes  
Total Zinc tonnes  
Total Copper tonnes  
Total Chromium tonnes  
Total Lead tonnes  
Total Cadmium tonnes  
Total Mercury tonnes  
Total Nickel tonnes  
Lindane (instead of Gamma-HCH) tonnes  
TSS (instead of Suspended Particulate Matter) kilotonnes  
Total Hydrocarbons kilotonnes  
Anionic active surfactants (instead of detergents) kilotonnes  
Phenols kilotonnes  
PCB-28 tonnes  
PCB-52 tonnes  
PCB-101 tonnes  
PCB-118 tonnes  
PCB-153 tonnes  
PCB-138 tonnes  
PCB-180 tonnes  
Total PCBs tonnes  
BOD-5 kilotonnes  
COD-Cr kilotonnes  
TOC kilotonnes  
AOX kilotonnes  
Tritium Bq  
Other Radionuclides (please name) Bq  
Average Riverine Flow for the Year (or volume for discharges) m3/sec  
Long Term Annual Average Riverine Flow (or volume for discharges) m3/sec  

 

 

7. ESAS Environmental Safety Aspects of Shipping

 

Mandatory:

 

        Ballast waters transportation

        Port Reception facilities

        Dispersants use

        Ships calling at ports

        Quantities and types of cargoes

        Oil spills (volumes, numbers, areas)

        Dumping

        Pollution fines

 

8. FOMLR Fishery and Other Living Resources

 

I. Fishery parameters/indicators

The following commercial species were agreed as indicator species:

Ø Pelagic species:

        sprat

        anchovy

        horse mackerel

        bonito

Ø Demersal species:

        turbot

        whiting

        dogfish

Rapana venosa

1. Catches

2. Effort table and figure also

3. CPUE

4. Stock biomass

5. Population parameters: age/size size structure (% per class small species 0.5 cm, for larger 1cm),  growth parameters per year  spawning intensity (egg concentration), total mortality, natural mortality, etc.). In table min/max/av size per species per month. Age of anchovy, turbot (where data are available) min/max/av.

6. Changing of fish behaviour (for five years-reports) migration routes

7. Other exotic fish species recorded and which of them became resource

8. List of species under extinction and recovering (for 5-years reports)

9. Gears: mesh size and minimal admissible length of fish

10. By catch of fish (incl sea horse, sturgeon) and mammals, strandings

11. Aquaculture development - production, number of farms. Restocking activities

12. Illegal fishery - IUU fishing, number of penalties

II. Economic indicators: fuel consumption, average age of the fleet, seafood consumption, employment, subsidy programs and type.

Annex III : Meta data submitted to the BSC

 

In the frames of this project the BSC PS developed special formats for submission of meta data on macroalgae, seagrasses, chlorophyll_a and contamination of biota, parameters which usually remain poorly reported to BSIS.

Full inventories of data availability were provided as follow:

 

1. Macroalgae meta data were reported by IO-BAS-Varna, IBSS Odessa and Sevastopol branches, Biological station in Novorosiysk and AZNIIRKH for the period 2000-2009.

Example: IBSS-Sevastopol, Ukraine in July 2003

Country Region Geographical region   Sampling location  Year Month Horizon (limits), m
UA Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 0.5
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 1
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 1.5
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 3
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 5
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 10
  Crimea Sevastopol Fiolent Cape 2003 7 15
UA Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 0.5
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 1
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 1.5
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 3
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 5
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 10
  Crimea Sevastopol Blue Bay 2003 7 15
UA Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 0.5
  Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 1
  Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 3
  Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 5
  Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 10
  Crimea Sevastopol Hersones Cape 2003 7 15

 

2. Seagrasses meta data were reported by IO-BAS-Varna, IBSS Odessa and Sevastopol branches, Biological station in Novorosiysk and AZNIIRKH for the period 2000-2009.

 

Example: IBSS-Odessa, Ukraine in 2002-2003

 


Country
Region Sampling location Year Month Day Horizon (limits), m Type of substrate Seagrasses community 1
Name of dominante (Latin) Coverege,% Value average Number of companion species, n
Biomass, kg.m-2 Abundance, n.m-2 Height of plant, cm
Ukraine NWBS Suchoi liman 2002 April 22-23 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Tiligulskiy liman 2002 June 4-5 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Chadgibeiskiy liman 2002 June 19 0-3 m nature Y Y N N N N
Ukraine NWBS Dofinovskiy liman 2002 July 17 0-3 m nature Y N N N N N
Ukraine NWBS Tiligulskiy liman 2002 August 13-14 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Suchoi liman 2002 September 4 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Tiligulskiy liman 2003 April 22 0-3 m nature Y N N N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Suchoi liman 2003 June 18 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Dofinovskiy liman 2003 June 26 0-3 m nature Y N Y N N N
Ukraine NWBS Tiligulskiy liman 2003 July 22 0-3 m nature Y Y Y N N Y
Ukraine NWBS Tiligulskiy liman 2003 September 17 0-3 m nature Y N Y N N Y

 


In Romania seagrasses recently reappeared, during the last 3-4 years, and the surface covered by them is still very small. If the populations of seagrasses will continue to increase, certainly more detail investigations will be undertaken.

 

3. Chlorophyll_a meta data were reported by IO-BAS-Varna (Bulgarian waters: 2000-2009) and IBSS-Sevastopol (Ukrainian waters 2000-2009)

Example: IO-BAS-Varna, Bulgaria in 2006

 

2 - 16.06.2006 R/V Akademik
Station Date Depth(m) Chl-No samples
AD(501) 6/2/2006 0,9,35 3
AE(502) 6/2/2006 0,11,25,45 4
AF(503) 6/2/2006 0,10,25,50 4
AG(504) 6/2/2006 0,16,25,50,95 5
AH(505) 6/2/2006 0 1
Z(407) 6/3/2006 0 1
Y(406) 6/3/2006 0 1
X(405) 6/3/2006 0 1
W(404) 6/3/2006 0 1
V(403) 6/3/2006 0 1
U(402) 6/3/2006 0 1
T(401) 6/3/2006 0,9,30 3
L(301) 6/4/2006 0,9,21 3
M(302) 6/4/2006 0,10,21 3
N(303) 6/4/2006 0,10,25,38 4
O(304) 6/4/2006 0,12,25,50 4
P(305) 6/4/2006 0,12,25 3
R(306) 6/4/2006 0 1
J(206) 6/5/2006 0,11,25,50,90 5
I(205) 6/5/2006 0,10,50,75 4
H(204) 6/5/2006 0,14,25 3
G(203) 6/5/2006 0,10,25,50 4
F(202) 6/5/2006 0,11,25 3
A(101) 6/6/2006 0, 6 2
B(102) 6/6/2006 0,13,25,55 4
C(103) 6/6/2006 0 1
D(104) 6/6/2006 0 1
600 6/15/2006 0,18,40 3
601 6/15/2006 0,15,25,65 4
602 6/15/2006 0 1
603 6/16/2006 0,10,20,50,75 5
604 6/16/2006 0,10,23 3
605 6/16/2006 0 1
606 6/16/2006 0 1
Total     89

 

4. Contamination of biota meta data were reported for 2000-2009 by NIMRD-Constanta, UkrNCEM-Odessa and IBSS-Sevastopol.

Example: NIMRD-Constanta, Romania, in 2002.


Station
Depth (m) N dec E dec Species Year Month U.M. Cu Cd Pb Ni Mn
Portita 0-5 44.6767 29.0067 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Portita 0-5 44.6767 29.0067 Mya arenaria 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Portita 0-5 44.6767 29.0067 Rapana venosa 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Constanta Nord 0-5 44.2167 28.6583 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x
Constanta Sud 0-5 44.0833 28.6467 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Eforie Sud 0-5 44.0433 28.6600 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Costinesti 0-5 43.9450 28.6444 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Mangalia 0-5 43.8003 28.5850 Mytilus galloprovincialis 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Gura Buhaz 20 44.4000 28.8433 Merlangius merlangus euxinus (Nordmann, 1840) 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x
Gura Buhaz 20 44.4000 28.8433 Engraulis encrasicolus (Lineaus, 1750) 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Gura Buhaz 20 44.4000 28.8433 Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Allev, 1956 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Gura Buhaz 20 44.4000 28.8433 Pomatomus saltatrix (Lineaus, 1758) 2002 July g/g f.w. x x x   x
Cazino Mamaia 20 44.2417 28.7083 Sprattus sprattus (Lineaus, 1758) 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x
Constanta Nord 20 44.2167 28.7000 Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1811) 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x
Eforie Sud 20 44.0433 28.6700 Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1758) 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x
Mangalia 20 43.7858 28.6183 Sprattus sprattus (Lineaus, 1758) 2002 May g/g f.w. x x x   x

 


 

More details on reported meta data and terms of access to the data can be provided upon request.

 

Other investigations (nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic communities, etc.) in the Black Sea were reported by different scientific institutions as follow:

 

Bulgaria

 

1. Institute of Oceanology, Varna

Table xxx. Observations of IO-BAS-Varna in 2001-2009, Bulgarian Black Sea waters

  Stations Parameters
11.2001 13 NO2, NO3, PO4
05.2002 15 NO2, NO3, PO4, Si
08.2002 15 NO2, NO3, PO4, Si
11.2002 15 NO2, NO3, PO4, Si
03.2003 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4
06.2003 17 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
09.2003 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
06.2004 16 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si 
09.2004 16 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
03.2005 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
06.2005 16 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, TP, Si
09.2005 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, TP, Si
11.2005 17 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
06.2006 15 NO2, NO3, PO4, Si
11.2006 13 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
02.2007 17 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
06.2007 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si
09.2007 8 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, ТР
04.2008 12 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4,ТР, ТN
06.2008 12 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4,ТР, ТN
10.2008 12 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4,ТР, ТN
02.2009 15 NO2, NO3, NH4,PO4, Si

 

 

2. Institute of Fishery, Varna, Bulgaria

 

Available long-term data sets since 1953. The Table below summarises cruises in 2000-2009.

Cape Kaliakra K1 (1 mile offshore), K3 ( 3 miles offshore), K10 (10 miles offshore), K15 (15 milies offshore), K20 (20 miles offshore); K30 (30 miles offshore).

Cape Galata G1 (1 mile offshore), G3 ( 3 miles offshore), G10 (10 miles offshore), G15 (15 milies offshore), G20 (20 miles offshore); G30 (30 miles offshore).

Cape Emine E1 (1 mile offshore), E3 ( 3 miles offshore), E10 (10 miles offshore), E15 (15 milies offshore), E20 (20 miles offshore); E30 (30 miles offshore).

A4 Beloslav Lake

A22 Varna Lake

B5 Varna Bay

Monthly observations available for the 1990s at B5, G1, G3, G10.

Table xxx. Observations of IFR-Varna in 2000-2009, Bulgarian Black Sea waters

Year Date Stations Number of stations Depths Parameters
2000 9.02. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m   Water temperature, salinity, nutrients (including organic N and P in 2001-2004), oxygen, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos (without seagrasses and macroalgae), fish                                                                                                                                            
  11.02. Varna Bay&Varna Lake  12 0-bottom 
  10.02. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5 0-150 
  14.03. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  25.04. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  18.05. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  19.05. Varna Bay  8  0-bottom
  20.05. Varna lake  4  0-bottom
  19.05. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.06. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  17.07. A22, B5, G3  3  0-bottom
  15.08. Varna Bay&Varna Lake  12  0-bottom
  14.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.08. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  14.09. A22, B5, G3  3  0-bottom
  18.10. A22, B5, G3  3  0-bottom
  13.11. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.11. Varna Bay &Varna Lake  12  0-bottom
  14.11. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
2001 13.02. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  20.02. Varna Bay  8 0-bottom 
  28.02. Varna Lake  4 0-bottom 
  14.02. E1, E10, E20, E30  4  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  17.04. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  3.06. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  4.06. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  5.06. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  8.06. Varna Lake& Varna Bay  12 0-bottom 
  11.06. Koket rais-4 stations  4 0-bottom 
  16.07. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  8.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.08. Varna Bay &Varna Lake  12 0-bottom 
  9.08. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  14.09. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  13.11. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  5.11. Varna Bay&Varna Lake  12 0-bottom 
  14.11. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.11. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
2002 13.02. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.02. Varna Bay &Varna Lake  12 0-bottom 
  14.02. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  14.03. A22, B5, G3  3 0-bottom 
  5.06. Varna Lake  4 0-bottom 
  7.06. Varna Bay  8 0-bottom 
  15.07. B-5, G1, G3, G10  4 0-bottom 
  25.08. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  26.08. Varna Lake  4 0-bottom 
  24.08. Varna Bay  8 0-bottom 
  24.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  23.08. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  10.09. B5, G1, G3, G10  4 0-bottom 
  20.11. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  21.11. Varna Bay&Varna Lake  12 0-bottom 
  19.11. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30 5 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  18.11. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
2003 10.03. B5, G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  11.03. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  12.04. A4, B5, G1, G3, G10  5 0-bottom 
  7.05. A22, B5, G1, G3, G10  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  15.08. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  12.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  13.08. E1, E3, E10, E20, E30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  14.08. 24-hour station  1 0-bottom 
2004 4.06. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  5.06. B5, G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  28.08. К1, К3, К10, К20, К30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  29.08. G1, G3, G10, G20, G30  5  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  30.08. 24-hours station  1 0-bottom 
  4.10. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15, G20  7  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
2005 15.03. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15,  6 0-bottom 
  26.04. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G15  6 0-bottom 
  14.06. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10, G20  6 0-bottom 
  22.08. B5,G1, G3, G5, G10, G15  6 0-bottom 
2006 23.02. G1, G3, G10  3 0-bottom 
  18.04. B5, G1, G3, G10, G15  5 0-bottom 
  22.05. B5, G1, G3, G5, G10  5 0-bottom 
  7-15.12. 27 stations Trawl survey  27  
2007 06-14.04 6 stations Trawl survey  6  
  02-15.06 14 stations Trawl survey  14  
  20-23.06 G1, G3, G5, G10, K1, K3, K5, K10  8 0-bottom 
    Varna Bay, Varna +Beloslav lake  14 0-bottom 
  13.07. Varna Bay, Varna +Beloslav lake  14 0-bottom 
    G1, G3  2 0-bottom 
  29-31.08 G1, G3, G5, G10, K1, K3, K5, K10  8 0-bottom 
    Varna Bay, Varna +Beloslav lake  14 0-bottom 
  12-27.10 Varna Bay, Varna +Beloslav lake  14 0-bottom 
    G1, G3  2 0-bottom 
2008 10.03. Varna + Beloslav Lakes  6 0-bottom 
  18-27.05. open sea 15 stations Trawl survey  
  06. Varna Bay  8 0-bottom 
  29-30.09. K1, K3, K10, K20 4  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  04.10. G1, G3, G10, G20 4  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  16.10. Varna Bay, G1, G3  10 0-bottom 
  12.12. Varna + Beloslav Lakes, Varna  Bay  14 0-bottom 
2009 15 .03. Varna + Beloslav lakes, Varna Bay  14 0-bottom 
  04.-27.05. open sea  10  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  01-04.06. open sea, Varna Lake  14  0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m 
  09. Varna Lake, Varna Bay,  12 0-bottom 
  24-25.09. open sea  10 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150m  
  25.11 Varna Bay  8 0-bottom 

 

 

Russian Federation

 

1. Shirshov Institute, Moscow

 

Table xxx. Cruises in 2001-2009. The standard transect in front of Gelendjik

(RU-I2)

Year Season Vessel Distance off shore, miles
2001 April R/V Akvanavt 65
2002 March R/V Akvanavt 100
2002 May R/V Akvanavt 90
2002 August R/V Akvanavt 100
2002 September R/V Akvanavt 30
2003 August R/V Ashamba 7
2004 June R/V Akvanavt 75
2005 June R/V Akvanavt 65
2005 September R/V Ashamba 5
2006 May R/V Akvanavt 85
2007 June R/V Akvanavt 100
2007 September R/V Akvanavt 90
2008 April R/V Shtokmann 100
2008 June R/V Ashamba 7
2009 June R/V Ashamba 10

2. Novorossiysk educational and research marine biological center

 

RF- I3- external data

Table xxx. Observations in Russian Black Sea waters

Region Year Season Number of stations Parameters observed
Novorossiysk Bay 2000-2002200320052009 seasonalspring, summersummersummer 13 pH, dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, Si, Cl-, PO43-, Cu, Zn, Pb, TPHs
Port Novorossiysk 2000-2006 monthly 10 pH, dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, TPH
Shesharis Oil Harbour 2000-2006 monthly 3  dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, detergent, TPHs
Taman 200420052006200720082009 summer, winterspring, summer, wintersummer, wintersummer, winterwinterwinter 1515151566  NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, detergent, TPHs, phenols, suspended solids, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd
Yuzhnaya Ozereyevka 2008 summer 18 pH, dissolved O2, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, Si, Alk, SO42-, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, detergent, TPHs, phenols, suspended solids, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Нg, Ni, Cr, Na, K, pesticides
Dzhubga 2005-2009 summer 2  pH, dissolved O2, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, Si, detergent, TPHs, phenols, suspended solids, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Нg, As, Mn, methane
Tuapse (port) 2000-2001 2008 seasonal  summer 10  3 NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, TPH, suspended solids, Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Pb, BOD5BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, TPHs, Fe, Cu, Pb, suspended solids
Tuapse ( beach) 2007 seasonal 6 pH, dissolved O2, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, TPHs, phenols, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Нg, suspended solids
NovomikhaylovskiyTuapseYakornaya shcel 2005 summer 222  pH, dissolved O2, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, detergent, TPHs, phenols, suspended solids, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Нg
Sochi 2009 autumn 112 pH, dissolved O2, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, Si, Alk, SO42-, Cl-,  detergent, TPHs, phenols, suspended solids, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Нg, Mn

Website: in preparation

e-mail: biozentr@yandex.ru

Tel/Fax.: (8617)715797

3. AZNIIRKH, Rostov on Don

By RF- I4

Table xxx. Number of transects and stations observed in Russian waters in 1999-2009 seasonally spring, summer and autumn.

Area (see the map above) Number of transects Number of stations
I 15 47
II 165 1050
III 45 135
IV 47 142

Turkey

Sinop Institute

Table xxx. Monitoring stations and sampling periods around Sinop by TR-I3.

Station Site year month (s)
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 1998 5-7-8-9
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2000 3-4-5-6-8-10
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2002 1-2-5-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2003 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2004 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2005 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2006 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2007 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2008 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2009 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12
A Inshore- 2 mile from shore 2010 1-2--
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 1998 5-7-8-9-11
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 1999 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-11
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2000 3-4-5-6-8-10-11
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2002 11-
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2003 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-9-10-11
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2004 1-2-3-4-6-7-10
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2005 7---8
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2007 10--11-12
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2008 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-9-10-11-12
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2009 1-2-3-4-5-6-8-9-10-11-12
B Inshore- 3 mile from shore 2010 1--2
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 1998 7-8-9-10
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2002 11-
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2003 10--11
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2004 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-10
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2005 7--8
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2006 2--3
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2007 10--11-12
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2008 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-9-10-11-12
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2009 2-3-4-5-6-8-9-10-11-12
C Inshore- 1 mile from shore 2010 1--2
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 1998 6-7-8-9
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 1999 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-11
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 2002 9--10-11
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 2003 1-4-5-6-10-12
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 2004 3--4-7
D Offshore- 2 mile from shore 2006 3-
E Offshore- 1 mile from shore 2002 11-
E Offshore- 1 mile from shore 2003 1-4-6-10
E Offshore- 1 mile from shore 2004 7-
F Offshore- 3 mile from shore 2002 11-
F Offshore- 3 mile from shore 2003 1-4-6-10
F Offshore- 3 mile from shore 2004 7-
       

Ukraine

MHI-Sevastopol

Table xxx. List of cruises carried out by MHI, Sevastopol in the Black Sea in 2000-2009

Vessel Cruise Number of stations Date: start Date: end Parameters
PV 55 92 11.07.2000 10.10.2000 T, S,O2
PV 59 35 11.07.2003 22.07.2003 T, S,O2
PV 61 14 01.07.2004 10.07.2004 T, S
PV 62 12 20.07.2005 28.07.2005 T, S
EKSP 1206 33 14.12.2006 15.12.2006 T,S
EKSP 107 33 09.01.2007 10.01.2007 T,S
EKSP 507 44 16.05.2007 19.06.2007 T,S,O2
EKSP 707 54 18.07.2007 22.07.2007 T,S,O2, h2s
EKSP 1207 75 07.12.2007 12.12.2007 T,S
EKSP 308 42 24.03.2008 25.03.2008 T, S
PathF 908 13 06.09.2008 10.09.2008 T,S(CTD)
PathF 908 135 06.09.2008 12.09.2008 T(XBT)
EKSP 908 45 18.09.2008 22.09.2008 T,S
SAPFIR 1008 31 12.10.2008 13.10.2008 T, S
SAPFIR 409 35 29.04.2009 03.05.2009 T,S,O2
SAPFIR 809 54 14.08.2009 18.08.2009 T,S,O2
SAPFIR 1109-1 5 04.11.2009 04.11.2009 T,S
SAPFIR 1109-2 7 24.11.2009 24.11.2009 T,S,O2,H2S

IBSS-Sevastopol

The Institute performs monitoring at the Sevastopol coast since 1999 for a full set of hydrochemical parameters, including total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The same set of parameters have been monitored for Balaklava Bay and nearby coastal waters since 2000.

 

  fig3.jpg

 

Figure xxx. Sampling stations in the Balaklava Bay and nearby coastal waters, UA-external data

 

Laspi Bay - historical data in 1983-1986  is displayed in Fig. 19 left and the scheme of present sampling stations (monthly in 2007-2009) in the Laspi Bay is displayed in Fig. 19right. The same set of parameters mentioned for other regions (Fig. 17 and 18) above is monitored in Laspi Bay too.

 

Figure xxx. Sampling stations in Lapsi Bay in the past (left) and at present (right): UA-external data.

Karadag and Koktebel Bay is monitored by the Institute at 15 stations in 2004-2009 with 3 times per year frequency. Hydrochemistry is covered including total phosphorus and total nitrogen.

fig4.jpg

Figure xxx. Sampling stations in Karadag and Koktabel.

 

Additionally, at all stations listed above (from Sevastopol coast to Koktebel and Karadag), concentrations of chlorophyll-a and pheophytin-a, suspended matter and components of man-made pollution, such as trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni , Hg, Cr), petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons in water and sediments were episodically measured.

In the Bay of Sevastopol,  a station network seen in the map (Fig.21) below was monitored regularly during 1998-2008. Nutrients and chlorophyll-a were measured.

 

Figure xxx. Sampling stations in the Bay of Sevastopol visited regularly in 1998-2008:  UA, external data

Primary Production in Sevastopol Bay was studied in 19601980 using radiocarbon method and in 20062007 using phytoplankton growth rates coupled with C:Chl a ratio and chlorophyll concentrations in the plankton.

Full inventory of macroalgae and seagrasses investigations (meta data) along the Ukrainian coast is provided. The studies were carried out by the Odessa and Sevastopol Branches of the Institute of Southern Seas (examples are given in Annex III, the inventory can be provided upon request).

Examples of presentation of data:

Fig. xxx. Long-term dynamics of nutrients species in UA waters.

Fig. xxx. Long-term dynamics of Chlorophyll_a in UA waters.


Annex IV. Fishery Report on suitability of BSIS data for calculation of indicators

Violin Raykov, Institute of Fisheries, Varna, Bulgaria; FOMLR AG

Indicator: Fishing fleet trends

 

The trend of fishing fleet in the Black Sea region in terms of number of fishing vessels is presented in Fig. 1. The majority of fishing vessels (6587 in 2008) has been registered and operated in Turkish Black Sea waters, especially in 2007 and 2008. The reporting of Russian Federation and Georgia in 2002-2008 is very poor and with many gaps (seeTable 1). Fishing capacity is missing in the reporting of all states for 2001. Significant reduction of the capacity has been registered in Ukraine and Romania. In 2008 total number of fishing vessels was 9694, respectively in Bulgaria the fishing vessel register reported 2545 vessels, in Romania - 439 and in Ukraine - 123.

 

Figure 1. Fishing fleet by Number of vessels per state - trends for the Black Sea region

Table 1. Fishing fleet in the Black Sea region by number of vessels

Year/State BULGARIA ROMANIA GEORGIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION TURKEY UKRAINE
2002 719 898 66 61   199
2003 889 898 68   719 294
2004 1082 897 300   529 199
2005 2438       1198  
2006 2440         142
2007 2557 441     6700 135
2008 2545 439     6587 123

For proper fisheries management it is important to know the fishing effort. One of the main problems in the Black Sea region is the lack of comprehensive information on fishing activity, catch quantities and composition and how they affect the current state of fish stocks. Consequently, reports on the annual catch quantities and composition are produced with serious gaps and the analysis of fish stocks current state are far from high level of accuracy. The communication between responsible authorities  needs improvement. The data exchange at the regional level is not yet systematic and regular.

According to the EU regulations in Bulgaria and Romania (EU waters) Fishing Vessel Register have been created. The data about fishing fleet hence is a property of EC and countries national responsible bodies. Such bodies are National Agency for Fisheries and Aquaculture in Bulgaria (Ministry of Agriculture and Food supply, Bulgaria) in Romania is the same body called ANPA. In Turkey the responsible body is MARA. In Russian Federation Ministry of Natural Resources (to be confirmed). In Georgia responsible body for fishing fleet data is Ministry of Environment. In Ukraine Fishing fleet Register exists (www.shipregister.kiev.ua)

The Bulgarian and Romanian Annual Reports on the Efforts to Achieve a Sustainable Balance Between Fishing Capacity and Fishing Opportunity during 2008 are prepared in accordance with the rules laid down in the Council Regulation (EC) No 2371/2002, Commission Regulation (EC) No 1438/2002 and Guidelines for an improved analysis of the balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities, version 1, March 2008, NAFA (2008). The fishing vessels of Bulgaria and Romania are registered in the Fishing Vessel Register of the National Executive Agency of Fisheries and Aquaculture.The rest of the Black Sea countries have no obligations under these regulations, and their reports to the Black Sea Commission do not contain data on Gross Tonnage (GT[9]) and power of the fishing vessels.

Marine fishery fleet of both member states can be assessed as multi-component. The most numerous group of vessels are small vessels (under 12m LOA[10]) which are tackled with several of nets and angling gears. Even they are equipped with engine, they move from the 3 miles zone away very rarely. Most of them are part-time used at sea, during the fishing seasons, peak moments mainly. Besides, the small vessel owners are fishing at sea in their free time, as supplementary activity. Even substantial catches of bonito and bluefish are caught by these vessels, only small part of the catch is declared and cannot serve for the purposes of the statistics. The small fishing vessels can be divided into 3 different groups and they are adjusted for net and trawl fishery. Most important are the vessels of type Baltica (>25m LOA) they are the largest units of the Bulgarian fishing fleet. In Romanian waters, together with Baltica, TCMN and B-140 vessel types are included in the Fishing Register. The maximum working depths of these vessels are 90-95 m in Bulgarian and 60m depth in Romanian Black Sea waters and they are 28-32 years old.

According to  tables 2 and 3, in Bulgaria there were 2438 fishing boats with a length overall less (LOA) than 12 m, representing approximately 96 % of all Bulgarian vessels and producing 57.28 % of all Bulgarian catches in the Black Sea. In Romania there were 423 fishing boats with a length overall less than 12m representing about 95 % of all Romanian vessels.

Table 2. Black Sea fishing fleet of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007

LOA Number Power, kW Gross tonnage, GT
Bulgaria Romania Bulgaria Romania Bulgaria Romania
under 12 m 2 438 423 47 347 2 711 4 286 547
12 m 15 m 38 5 3 856 447 601 66
15 m 24 m 50 7 9 296 2 254 1 707 376
over 24 m 12 6 3 305 1 841 1 583 942
Total 2 538 441 63 062 6 053 8 334 1 931

Table 3. Black Sea fishing fleet of Bulgaria and Romania in 2008-2009

LOA Number Power, kW Gross tonnage, GT
Bulgaria Romania Bulgaria Romania Bulgaria Romania
under 12 m 2 438 423 47 347 2 711 4 286 547
12 m 15 m 38 5 3 856 447 601 66
15 m 24 m 57 5 9 296 1 654 1 903 376
over 24 m 12 6 3 305 1 841 1 583 746
Total 2 545 439 63 804 6 653 8 372 1 735

Note:

Source of information Member state fleet register

Check up is valid up to 22.05.2009.

The fishing fleet of Ukraine operating in the Black and Azov Seas in 2008 incorporated 123 units of vessels more than 18 m long (Table 4).

Table 4. Black Sea fishing fleet of Ukraine by length (LOA)2

2006 LOA  2007 LOA  2008 LOA 
142 >12m 135 >12m 123 >12m
56 20-40m 52 20-40m 48 20-40m
52 18-24m 50 18-24m 43 18-24m
34 >12m 33 >12m 32 >12m

In Ukraine, the majority of vessels (74%) were from 20 to 40 meters long (48 units) or from 18 to 24 m (43 units). Among them multi-purpose vessels capable to fish with trawls, purse seines, nets or long-lines were predominant. Only 8 vessels of them were designed to fish with trawls exclusively and 4 of them to fish only with nets.

In 2002 most of the fishing vessels in Ukraine were at the age of 11 to 30 years old (70%), 23% were even older and only 7% were relatively new - not older than 10 years. Consequently, the reduction in number of fishing vessels in 2006-2008 made up 19 units or 13%.

In Turkey,   6 587 fishing vessels were registered in Black Sea ports. The total number of trawlers was 543, while purse seiners were 526  multi  purpose (trawler, purse seine vessels) - 469,   carrier  vessels - 269 and  small  boats - 15 460.  Most of the trawler and purse seiners operated in the Black Sea during the fishing season.

Proposed methods  for fisheries fleet monitoring and control improvement

The most important role here belongs to the control bodies, and the control on IUU (Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported catches) is of major significance.

Survey of the presently used methods for fisheries monitoring, control and surveillance in the Black Sea countries needs to be undertaken.

Analysis of these methods compared to what should be needed for optimal / sufficient input to fisheries management. Identify gaps and propose solutions in the form of deployment of surveillance tools.

Assess the feasibility of regional data access and exchange system for fishing vessel positions and efforts, from technical, administrative, legal and political points of view. Issues include data exchange formats, confidentiality, commercial sensitivity, aggregation level, and more.

 

Conclusions, recommendations:

 

One of the most important issues in the proper fishing management is the fishing effort estimation. Difficulties come from:

-                     some of the vessels operate seasonally (part of the time they are used only for tourism) and as a result there are significant differences between fishing days of the vessels from one segment;

-                     Some fishermen use the vessels for fishing when possible outside of their main job/occupation.

VMS is a cost-effective technology, but needs to be backed up by other surveillance means to detect purposeful IUU (Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated) fishing effort. On the regional level several control, surveillance and monitoring tools can be used together with the VMS: patrols and inspection vessels or aircraft, satellite imaging etc. VMS also extends only to the large fishing vessels, in many cases covering a major part of the catch but disregarding the majority of the fleet. Fishing vessel surveillance is in most cases implemented based on national law and carried out country-wise by national authorities needs harmonization at the regional level.

Catches

Indicator: Catches by major species and areas:

Recent regional assessments were performed excluding Russian Federation and Georgia, whose reporting on catches was not comprehensive enough in the period 2001-2008. For instance Georgia reported catches for about 20 species for 2001-2002. In 2003 Georgia reported only Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) landings, in 2004 -2006 no reported catch at all, as in 2007 reported catch compounded only by Anchovy (E.encrasicolus L.), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and Picked dogfish (Squalus acanthias). For 2008 no landings data have been reported. Russian Federation reports on catches, data are missing since 2005.

We may conclude that due to described misreporting the total catch amount in the Black Sea is highly underestimated. For instance, the total landings in 2008 decreased up to 390 thousand tones (without RU and GE) compared to 482 thousand tons reported in 2007.

 

Figure 2. Total landings by countries in the Black Sea sum for 2001-2008

The highest landings in the Black Sea (2001-2008) were reported by Turkey (2 929 936t).

Table 5 Total catch by countries in Black Sea for 2001 -2008

Bulgaria Ukraine Romania Turkey Russia Georgia
51171.9 330299.8 12596.54 2929936 93874.74 45506.6

The overall catches for the BS coastal states without Turkey in  2001-2008 were 533 449.3t.

Figure 3. Total landings in the Black Sea region, 2001-2008

Turkey caught 90% of the total landings in the Black Sea in 2008 and 87% in 2007 as Anchovy represented 60% of Turkeys total catch in the Black Sea  Total Turkeys catch of anchovy decreased significantly from 360 000 t in 2007 to 230 000 t in 2008.

Sub indicator: Fish landings by major fish type:

 

Figure 4. Landings by major fish type (tons), 2001-2008. (adjust the figures to Times font as the others above).

The greatest percent of catches belonged to the pelagic species (E.encrasicolus, Sprattus sprattus and Trachurus mediterraneus). The peak of the catches was in 2007.

Among demercals species, turbot has the highest economical value. In 2005 the landings were 20 530.81 t., they decreased in 2006 up to 9 286.07 t, and again increased in 2007 and 2008 respectively to 16 672.12 t  and 17 407.32 t.

Rapa whelk (R.venosa) landings are prevailing among shelfish species, as Turkey and Bulgaria catches are exported to Asian markets mostly.

Indicator: Catches of major commercial species by countries, tones 2001-2008

 

            A.

B.

             C.

              D.

          E.

  

          F.

Figure 5. Catches of major commercial species by countries, 2001-2008

In 2001-2008 the greatest percent of anchovy and scad landings belong to Turkey (Fig 5); 65% of the sprat landings belong to Ukraine; the major catches of demercal species (Whiting (90%), Turbot (70%) and Rapa whelk (80%) belong to Turkey.

Indicator: Total Allowable Catch (TAC) and quotas.

In the Black Sea region only Bulgaria and Romania established TACs and quotas for two regulated species: sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and turbot (Psetta maxima) (Fig 6).

 

Figure 6. Total Allowable Catch and quotas in Bulgaria and Romania.

For 2007 and 2008 the quota was 15 000 t for sprat. In 2009 the quota was decreased to 12 750 t. For turbot the quota is shared between Bulgaria and Romania as follows: In 2007 100 t (50:50), in 2008 -100 t (50:50) and in 2009 98 t, with additional conditions, related to the strengthening of the control, reporting and fishing prohibition extension to 15 February 2010.

Bottlenecks/Gaps/misreporting: No data from Russian Federation and very scarce data from Georgia. No data on IUU catch and landings. Due to poor reporting the catches in the Black Sea might be well underestimated.

Recommendations: Reporting on catches needs improvement. Illegal fishery should be assessed as well.

Fish stocks

Indicator: Commercial Fish Stocks

Sub-indicators here are:

Number of commercial stocks;

Number of assessed stocks: The assessed stocks in the BS are only 2 sprat and turbot;

Number of non-assessed stocks;(all the other stocks are not assessed based on  harmonised methodologies);

Percentage of non assessed / stocks of economic importance;

Percentage of overfished / stocks of economic importance;

Percentage of safe / stocks of economic importance;

All these sub-indicators of stock biomass are derived form the analysis (ICA, XSA, Darby and Flatman,1994; Patterson and Melvin, 1996. Analyses were performed by SGMED plus Black Sea and SGMED -09-01 in 2008 and 2009):

(http://fishnet.jrc.it/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=1807&folderId=129105&name=DLFE-23810.pdf)

Fishing mortality sub indicator derived from the analytical methods applied;

Spawning Stock Biomass sub indicator derived from the analytical methods applied;

Recruits sub indicator derived from the analytical methods applied;

Landings indicator used in the analysis in order to derive sub-indicators.

Examples of Sub-Indicators in the Black Sea:

№ of commercial stocks: 26

№ of assessed stocks: 2

№ of non-assessed stocks:  24

Percentage of non assessed / stocks of economic importance = 24*100/26 = 92.31%

Percentage of overfished / stocks of economic importance = 1*100/26 = 3.85%

Percentage of safe / stocks of economic importance = 1*100/9 = 3.85% 

Harmonised (Black Sea) stock assessments by analytical methods have been carried out for sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and turbot (Psetta maxima) only.

Examples for sprat

Since 2000, the estimated fishing mortality is quite variable and ranged without a trend at a level of 0.8. The constant exploitation goes along with a recent declining trend in landings and spawning stock biomass. The stock size in 2006 and 2007 was low compared to 1980s and slightly exceeds the lowest level estimated for the 1990s.

The selection patterns estimated by the XSA (Extended survivor analysis, Pilling et al., 2008; Daskalov et al., 2009) indeed indicate some lower selection of the age groups 4 and 5 since 1990 by about 30%, but not to the extent assumed by most of the experts, who argued for a much higher reduction from the estimated level (see ICA, (Integrated catch analysis,Pilling et al., 2008; Daskalov et al., 2009)  (http://fishnet.jrc.it/web/stecf).The following Figure 7 shows the average selection patterns for certain periods as estimated by the XSA.

                                      

Figure. 7   Sprat in the Black Sea All coastal states catch data are included into the analysis.. Retrospective trends of the assessment parameters fishing mortality (average over ages 1-4), SSB (spawning stock biomass) and recruitment.

Figure 8. Sprat in the Black Sea (data of all BS states). Trends in official landings and mean fishing mortality.

Figure 9. Sprat in the Black Sea.(all Black Sea states data). Trends in SSB and recruits at age 0.

To perform the analysis further (using specialised software)  data on landings (reported by all coastal states) and some other indexes from Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine were used.

F

 
 


igure 10. Time-series of sprat population estimates A. recruitment (line) and SSB (grey); B. landings (grey) and average fishing mortality (ages 24, line).F1-4 means fishing mortality at ages 1 to 4.

Analysis of main population parameters (abundance, catch, fishing mortality) are carried out. The indexes reveal that the sprat stock has recovered from the depression in the early 1990s due to good recruitment in 1996-2001 and the biomass and catches have gradually increased over the early 1990s and early 2000s. The stock estimates, however, confirm the cyclic nature of the sprat population dynamics. The years with relatively strong recruitment were followed by years of low to medium recruitment which leads to a relative decrease of the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). High fishing mortalities (F2-4) were observed in 1998, 2003 and 2005

Forecast: The status quo fishing in 2009 will result in increased landings around 57 500t, as compared to the 51 000 t landed in 2008. The SSB will increase to around 173 000 t in 2009 and drop to 150 000 in 2010 and 144 000 in 2011. The short-term forecast indicates that present level of fishing is probably too high and will affect negatively the SSB at the present level of recruitment.

Examples for Turbot:

Figure 11.Turbot in the Black Sea (the catch data used for the analysis are from all Black Sea). Retrospective trends of the assessment parameters fishing mortality (average over ages 4-8), SSB and recruitment.

According to the analysis the recruitment has two peaks in 1971 1978 and 1988 1994 and increase of recruitment after 2001. Correspondingly, SSB attained higher values up to 18,000 t during the period 1976 1983 and very low values after 2000. Since 2004 slight increase in SSB was observed. Fishing mortality F4-8 (fishing mortality for age 4 to age 8) has a peak in 2000-2001 (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. Time-series of turbot population estimates of total stock in the Black Sea (XSA, (Extended survivor analysis,Pilling et al., 2008; Daskalov et al., 2009) A. recruitment (line) and SSB (grey); B. landings (grey) and average fishing mortality (ages 48, line).

The results above presented a useful and indicative of trends in turbot abundance in the Black Sea. Gradual increase of SSB is observed after the historic low in 2002 but biomass still remains quite low compared to the stock size in the 1970 and 1980s. The present results cannot be used for the aims of the management advice and prediction of stock size.

Sub-indicator:  State of the spawning stock size

Spawning stock biomass is a sub indicator, derived by analytical method.  In the Black Sea data availability for this sub-indicator: only for sprat and turbot.

Example for turbot: The turbot SSB during recent years is at a low level compared to historical abundance. In 2002 and 2003 the SSB has been at the absolute minimum since 1970. Relative abundance estimates are confirmed by CPUE (abundance) data. Catches have also dropped since 2002. A gradual recovery in the SSB and catches is observed since 2004.

Sub-indicator:   State of recruitment.

State of recruitment is a sub indicator, derived by analytical method.  In the Black Sea data availability for this sub-indicator: only for sprat and turbot.

Example for turbot: Recruitment of turbot was at minimum in 2000-2001 and started to increase since 2002. The increase in recruitment since 2002 has positively influenced the SSB but given that many small and immature turbots are caught by fishermen such a positive influence may not propagate in the next years.

         Sub-indicator:  State of exploitation

State of exploitation is a sub indicator, derived by analytical method.  In the Black Sea data availability for this sub-indicator: only for sprat and turbot.

Example for turbot: Fishing mortality has peeked in 2000-2001 due to relatively high catches provided the low biomass of the stock. The catches decreased since 2002 but fishing mortality remains quite high because of the low exploitable biomass.

Bottlenecks/Gaps/misreporting: There is no Legally Binding Document on fisheries/management in force for the Black Sea. Most of the stocks are not assessed (only for sprat and turbot assessments are available for the whole Black Sea), or just separate assessments (not in a harmonised manner) exist in some countries. No common fishery regulation (base for fisheries management) exists in the Black Sea region.

Recommendations: Dedicated surveys for stock assessments need to be carried out. Harmonization of methodologies (stock assessments and sub-indicators derived) is crucial.

 

Indicator: Trophic level

 

Figure 13. Trophic level (www.fishbase.org) of the pelagic, demercal and shellfish species landings, 2001-2008.

Table 6. Percent share of the species composition of the landings, trophic level (www.fishbase.org) with SE, 2001-2008.

  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Trophic level S.E.
Main pelagic species                    
E.encrasicolus 78% 77% 82% 86% 45% 73% 87% 69% 3.11 0,45
S.sprattus 15% 16% 18% 14% 19% 11% 8% 18% 3 0,4
T.mediterraneus 5% 2%     5% 5% 4% 9% 3.59 0,41
S.sarda 1% 1%     23% 9% 1% 2% 4.5 0,74
P.saltatrix 1% 3%     6% 2% 1% 1% 4.5 0,55
Alosa sp.   1%     1%     1% 3.93 0,63
A.boyeri         1%       2.32 0,26
Main demercal species                  
P.maxima 10% 3% 10% 5% 2% 4% 3% 3% 3.96 0,63
Mytilus sp.   1% 4% 3%   1% 1% 2% 3  
R.venosa 25% 33% 28% 67% 40% 59% 51% 44% 3.2  
Gobiidae 1% 2% 16% 6% 1% 1% 1% 1% 4.3  
S.acanthias 1% 1% 13% 4%         4.3 0,67
M.merlangus 34% 39% 12% 6% 25% 34% 33% 38% 4.37 0,66
Mugilidae 29% 21% 17% 9% 32% 1% 11% 12% 2.543333333 0,16

Indicator: Aquaculture production

 

Figure 14. Total aquaculture production in the Black Sea

The aquaculture production increased in 2004 (2259 t) and in 2005 (4355 t). The reported data are from Turkey, Ukraine and Bulgaria, mostly. Romania has no developed marine aquaculture sector; some experimental investigations on M.galloprovincialis exist. Georgia reported only for 2004, 400 t aquaculture production. No data from Russian Federation for the In 2008 only Bulgaria, Turkey and Ukraine reported for aquaculture production in Black Sea.(Table 7).

Table 7. Reported aquaculture production in the Black Sea for 2001-2008.

  BULGARIA GEORGIA ROMANIA RUSSIA TURKEY UKRAINE
2002         1404 75
2003     3     241
2004 45 400     1414 400
2005 70       3410 845
2006 205       598 413
2007 240         505
2008 305       1173 408
Total 865 400 3   7999 2887

Figure 15. Annual aquaculture production by country.

As it shown on Fig.15, Turkey holds the first place in aquaculture production in the region. In 2005, a peak of around 3 500 t has been recorded.

Figure 16.  Annual production of major commercial species. What is Fish+Suborder Natantia (shrimps and prawns).

As it is shown on the Fig.16 the Blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is the most popular species for artificial cultivation. In 2006 total blue mussel production increased, then decreased toward 2007-2008. Major fish species, object for cultivation in Turkey were Sea Bream (Sparus aurata), Sea Bass (Morone morone), trout (Oncorhinchus mykiss), as the majority of production came from the Aegean Sea and small quantities from the Black Sea (Fig  /????).No Blue mussel production in the Turkish part of the Black Sea has been reported for 2008.

In Ukraine, the list with cultivated species in the Black Sea is large: E.encrasicolus, Mugil soiuy, Atherina boyeri, fam.Gobiidae, Platichtys flesus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, . Suborder Natantia (shrimps and prawns) Bulagarian marine fish cultivation includes Mytilus galloprovincialis and Baramundi (Lates calcarifer) cultivation.

Bottlenecks/gaps/misreporting:

 

No comprehensive data on environmental impact of aquaculture production exist in the region (lack of data on N and P discharges). No data reported on rates of nutrient and chemical discharges, number of escapes, and incidence of disease per unit production, (food given/fish production).

No data are available on contribution of nutrients from aquaculture to total coastal nutrient loads.

Recommendations: Better reporting on aquaculture is needed. Relevant monitoring to investigate on impacts of aquaculture would be beneficial.

References:

BSC, 2008. State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2001 - 2006/7). Edited by Temel Oguz. Publications of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC) 2008-3, Istanbul, Turkey, 448 pp.

Daskalov G., V. Raykov, M. Panayotova, G. Radu, V. Maximov, V. Shlyakhov, E. Duzgunez and H.-J. Rätz, 2009. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries. Report of the SGMED-09-01 working group. EUR Scientific and Technical Research series ISSN 1018-5593, 158 pp.

FOMLR AG Final report on Policy Measures Development and Data analysis 2006/2007(2007), 3-48.

Final Report on Policy Measures Development and Data Analysis for 2007/2008, 3-36.

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2009. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, version (10/2009).

Pilling G., Abella A., Di Natale A., Martin P., Guillen J., Cardinale M., Accadia P., Anastopoulou I., Colloca F., Daskalov G., Dimech M., Fiorentino F., Karlou-Riga C., Katsanevakis S., Lleonart J., Maximov V., Murenu M., Panayotova M., Petrakis G., Quetglas A., Radu G., Raykov V., Santojanni A., Sartor P., Shlyakhov V., Spedicato M. T., Tsitsika E., Vasiliades L., Zengin M., Cheilari A., Rätz, H.- J.Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - Report of the SGMED-08-03 Working Group on the Mediterranean Part III Joint Black Sea Working Group. JRC, scientific and technical report, 423 -450, ISBN 978-92-79-11055-9, 2008.

30th Plenary meeting report of the scientific, technical and economic committee for fisheries (Plen-09-01), (eds.J.Casey & H.Dorner), ISSN 1018-5593, 19 pp.


Annex V: Northward movement of species

Trend on increasing Mediterranean species arrival into the Black Sea.

Tamara Shiganova1 & Bayram Ozturk2

1 P.P.Shirshov Institute of oceanology  Russian Academy of Sciences

36, Nakhimovskiy pr., 117851 Moscow, Russia, e-mail:  shiganov@ocean.ru

2Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Turkey, e-mail: ozturk@istanbul.edu.tr

The flora and fauna of the present-day meromictic Black Sea, which was formed under the conditions of relatively low salinity and the existence of an anoxic zone beneath the upper oxygen-containing layer, is distinguished by a low species diversity characteristic of most of the taxonomic groups represented in it and by an absolute absence of many of them. Meanwhile, it features a rather high productivity, first of all, in near-shore regions, associated with a high abundance of key species, and by a richness of fish resources.

The Black Sea biota contains of 80% of Atlantic-Mediterranean origin species, 10.4% and 9.6% of species of freshwater and Ponto-Caspian origin, respectively. One more component of biota is an arctic assemblage, which is extremely poor and contains mainly flora (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1969). Biota represented by the species originated from the Atlantic-Mediterranean Sea makes up species of Lusitanian province, and of the boreal zone of the Atlantic Ocean.  Species, which have Lusitanian origin, belong to warm water species. They inhabit upper layer of the Black Sea. Species, which have Atlantic boreal origin, belong to moderately cold water species. They have clear features of cold-water relicts. Among them are mainly benthic, demersal and pelagic species, which live in the cold intermediate layer and below up to the boundary of anoxic layer. Only the most eurythermal of them may rise to the surface layers. In addition to salinity, qualitative impoverishment of the Black Sea biota is due to the absence of deep-water species at depths greater than 125-200 m.

At present, the total number of species in the Black Sea is relatively small and stands at  3,774 spp. Of these 1,619 are fungi, algae, and higher plants; 1,983 are invertebrates, 180 are fish, and 4 are sea mammals- dolphins (Zaitzev, Alexandrov, 1998).

Euryterm species
 

 

Cold-water species
 

 

Euryterm species
 

In the 20th century, especially in its second half, under the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors, significant changes have occurred in the diversity of the flora and fauna of the Black Sea. Among the most pronounced anthropogenic factors, which affected biota and have to be mentioned:

regulation of the runoff of major rivers;

increase in the supply of dissolved mineral forms of phosphates and nitrates from large rivers accompanied by reduced silicate supply. This resulted in a decrease in the Si : P and Si : N ratios, which are important for the functioning of phytoplankton;

increase in the supply of organic matter from the Danube River, which caused mass development of mixotrophic algae;

changes in the composition of phytoplankton species and their proportions, domination of dinoflagellates instead of domination of diatoms, significant growth in the phytoplankton biomass and outburst in the development of harmful algae;

subsequent eutrophication;

corresponding increase in the primary production: twofold on the average over the entire sea and tenfold in its northwestern part ;

subsequent outbursts of native gelatinous  species such as Aurelia aurita and Noctiluca scintillans;

deterioration in the condition of spawning and feeding areas of fishes;

high pressure of fishery resulted in decreasing stocks of large pelagic fishes migrants from the Aegean and Marmara seas and dolphins;

invasion of non-native species, some of which negatively affected the communities in which they introduced or replaced native species.

The classical scheme of the functioning of a balanced ecosystem in an inland basin is based on а top-down control against predators that descends from large pelagic fishes and mammals to small pelagic fishes and lower to zooplankton (when large edible zooplankton dominates) and algae (when diatom algae dominate). As a result of the man-induced changes that occurred in the Black Sea ecosystem by the end of the 1980s, it became a mesotrophic or eutrophic (in its northwestern and the western parts) basin with disturbed functioning, which was favorable for the development of gelatinous plankton.

Among the factors mentioned, the occasional and sometimes intentional introduction of non-native species of animals and plants is a global phenomenon that has not avoided the Black Sea as well. As a result, the Black Sea became a basinrecipient for many non-native species of different origins both marine and brackish water species and affected all other seas of Ponto-Caspian basin and in a less degree the Sea of Marmara and the eastern Mediterranean as a donor area for many of these established species. All together 156 (or 171 according to other sources) species were established, which belong to different taxonomical groups (Fig.1).

Fig.1 Donor areas of the non-native species and their share (%) in the Black Sea.

The disturbance of the Black Sea has favored the establishment of the new gelatinous representative of macroplankton such as the predatory warm-water ctenophore M. leidyi. Within the heated zone of the surface layer of the Black Sea it found conditions optimal with respect to the temperature, salinity, and productivity. Precisely under these conditions, it became capable of developing a high activity (intensity of the metabolism and, hence, the feeding and growth rates) and reached extremely high abundances. After M. leidyi invasion cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to dolphins (bottom-up). Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, relaxed from zooplankton grazing pressure (top-down) and from increasing bacterioplankton to increasing zooflagellata and ciliates (Shiganova et al, 2004).

Ten years later another warm water ctenophore Beroe  ovata predator on  M.leidyi was introduced with ballast waters from the same area (coastal area of the north America) and established. Its invasion favored invasion meltdown, when invasion one species stimulate invasion its predator after its appearance in the same recipient area. Resulted in M.leidyi  population decreased and ecosystem began to recover trophic web at all levels (Shiganova et al.2000; 2003).

In addition in the Black Sea during last decades temperature increased both in the surface mixed and the cold intermediate layers ( Fig.2), which facilitates the increase population of thermophilic species and their northward expansion from the Mediterranean. Until recently new Mediterranean species have been recorded temporally or permanently mainly in the near-Bosporus region.  Therefore, they are usually not regarded as established non-native species. But if we take into account only established species, their share in total numbers of non-native species consist of 36%.  Since 1960s and certainly earlier with the Bosporus Strait with Low-Bosporus current delivered many Mediterranean species different taxonomic groups.  But selected Mediterranean species of phyto- , zooplankton, benthic and fish species more and more often are recorded also off northwestern and northeastern coastal areas. At present, this process is facilitating  by rising temperature. As a result of that numbers of penetrated and even established species far from Bosporus are increasing during last years. Species that penetrated beyond the Bosporus reach the centre, southwest, southeast and northeast, moving with the currents or lenses of the Mediterranean water or are releasing with ballast water. Number of species brought with ballast waters increased especially around harbor areas. Some species were represented by a few specimens; others are increasing their density.

Fig. 2. Rising of water temperature during last decades (Data of lab. Hydrophysics of Southern branch of SIO RAS).

The process of establishment of the species that have already invaded the sea lasts in time. Selected species of this kind may temporarily become subdominant species, but, as a rule, they remain rare or are abundant only in definite years, which suggest a high stability of the communities of the Black Sea with respect to establishment of non-native species or conditions of the Black Sea with low salinity and low winter temperature do not favor them to keep self- reproducing population of the most of these species particularly representative of Copepoda .

Microplankton

Microplankton elements are Mediterranean tintinnids, first found in the northwestern Black Sea in 2002 (Table 1, upon request) (Polikarpov et al., 2003).

Phytoplankton

Mediterranean phytoplankton species new for the Black Sea are recorded year after year, and their numbers keep increasing. A significant number of species native to the Mediterranean colonize the Bosporus region (Таble 2). Some of them might survive only in this area where salinity is higher than in other regions of the Black Sea. Examples include the diatoms Fragillaria striatula and Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, the coccolithophorid Calyptrosphaera incriase and the peridinean Ceratium macroceros, registered since the beginning of the 1960s at a salinity of 34 and a temperature of 14 ◦ C. These conditions significantly differ from the Black Sea (Georgieva, 1993). However, some other newcomers of the 1960s and early 1970s were found not only near the Bosporus but also near the Crimea (Table 3, upon request) (Kuzmenko, 1966; Senichkina, 1973, Kovalev et al., 1998).

Table 2. Mediterranean phytoplankton species found near the Bosporus in the Black Sea (Georgieva, 1993).

  Т оС S
Biddulphia alternans (Bail.)V. H. 7.70 19.34
Eucampia cornuta (Cl) Grun 8.40 19.78
Rhizosolenia styliformis Brightw 17.13 17.59
Thalassiothrix mediterranus Pavill 7.89 19.13
Amphidinium conradi (Conrad) Schill. 7.44 18.38
A. vigrense Wolosz 10.79 18.18
A. mannanini Herd. 10.79 18.18
Ceratium hexacanthum f.contortum (Lemm.)Jorg. 7.80 18.39
C .massiliense (Gourret) Jorg 7.81 18.39
C. furca var.eugrammum (Eht.) Jorg. 18.67-24.97 16.44-18.39
C. fusus var.seta (Eht.) Jorg. 7.80 18.39
C .teres Kof. - -
C. trichoceros (Eht.) Kof. 10.79 18.18
C.tripos var. atlanticum Ostf. 7.81 18.39
C.hexacantum f. aestuarium (Schrod.) Schill. 7.81 18.39
Cochlodinium citron Kof.et Sw. 7.39 18.50
Gymnodinium paradoxum Schill. - -
G.pygmaeum Leb. 10.79 18.18
Oxytoxum parvum Schill. 7.41 18.33
O.variabile Schill 23.98 15.73
O. viride Schill. 8.88 20.32
Peridinium sinaicum Matz 18.82 18.36
Pronoctiluca acuta (Lohm.) Schill. 9.14-9.85 18.57-18.96
P. pelagica Pavill 7.64 -
Pyrocystis hamulus Cl. 13.20 17.20
P. fusiformis (W.Th.)Mur. 9.51 21.42
P. pseudonoctiluca (W.Th.) Schill. 6.52 18.40
Coccolithus pelagicus (Walich.) Schill. 7.55 18.20
Rhabdosphaera stylifera Lohm. 8.74 20.14
Syracosphaera coronata Lohm. 7.44 17.98
S. cornifera Schill. (Helladosphaera) 16.10 17.98
S. quadricornu (Anthosphaera) Schill. 8.74 29.14
S. spinosa Lohm. 7.31 18.52
Total: 33 species    

Kuzmenko (1966) listed Dynophysis schuttii Murr. et Whitt. and Podolampas spinifer Okatumura, previously unknown in the Black Sea but typical of the Mediterranean off the southern coast of the Crimea at a salinity of 1818.5. In the early 1990s, Katodinium rotundatum (Lohm) Fott, Achradina sulcata Lohm., and Pronoctiluca sp., appeared in shallow water off Yalta. Distephanus octonarius var. Polyactis (Jorg) Gleser and D. speculum var. Septenarius Jorg, previously unknown in the Black Sea were also discovered off Crimea area (Senichkina, 1993). In all, 37 representatives of Mediterranean phytoplankton were registered in subsurface waters of the Bosporus region (Table 2) (Georgieva, 1993).  Many of these species were recorded not only in the waters originated from the Sea of Marmara and Mediterranean but also  in the typical Black Sea waters.  It could be explained mixing of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea waters and driving waters with  species in the upper layers. Resulted on these processes in the upper layers of the southern Black Sea such representatives of the Mediterranean phytoplankton  as к Syracosphaera cornifera, Ceratium furca var. eugrammum, Pyrocystis hamulus, Pronoctiluca acuta etc. were recorded (Табл. 2) (Georgieva, 1993).

Not all species found recently may be considered as newcomers some of them were discovered after more detailed examinations of the Black Sea samples. Thus in coastal northwestern Crimea, long-term observations (19682002) brought to light new species for the Black Sea, such as the diatoms Asterionellapsis glacilis, Chaetoceros tortissimus, Thallassiosira nordenskioeldii, Lioloma pacificus, Pseudonitzschi inflatula, two subspecies of Chaetoceros, and the dinophyte Dinophysis odiosa, as author assumed they arrived from the  Mediterranean  (Senicheva, 2002).

During last years a considerable number of new Mediterranean species were found  around the ports (Table 3) (Alexandrov, 2004; Moncheva, 1995; Terenko & Terenko, 2000; Terenko, 2003;Senicheva, 2001). 

In early August 2001 the Mediterranean Chaetocerus tortissimus, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, and Alexandrum sp. were recorded in the coastal area of northeastern Black Sea (coastal Bolshoi Utrish). Cochlodinium polykrikoides reached a biomass of ca 500 g.l-1 (Vershinin et al., 2004). It was observed also in Odessa Bay in 2002 (Terenko, 2003).

Altogether 11 Mediterranean species of phytoplankton were found recently in the areas far from Bosporus, 10 species more were found in the Black Sea and considered as species probably Mediterranean origin (Table 3, upon request).  

Zooplankton

As mentioned above, high numbers of holozooplankton species dispersed with Low-Bosporus current into the Black Sea and occur temporally off the Bosporus. Among them, 59 species are Copepoda. All of them were recorded along the southern Black Sea but none of them became abundant (Table 4).

Table 4. List of Mediterranean Copepoda found in the Black Sea (with additions after Kovalev et al., 1998). References : 1-Pavlova, 1964, 1965; Pavlova & Baldina, 1969; 2-Kovalev et al., 1976; 3-Kovalev, 1971; 4-Kovalev et al., 1987; 5-Porumb, 1980; 6-Kovalev et al., 1998; N- recent finding

Reference     1                      2 3 4 5 6
Species            
Calanus tenuicornis Dana         +  
Calanus gracilis Dana   +        
Calanus minor Claus       +    
Eucalanus sp.         +  
Mecynocera clausi Thompson       + +  
Paracalanus nanus Sars       + +  
Paracalanus aculiatus Giebr.         +  
Clausocalanus arcuicornis (Dana) + + +      
Clausocalanus paululus Farr.   + + +    
Clausocalanus (Brady)   +   +   +
Clausocalanus pergens Farr.   +   +   +
Clausocalanus parapergens Frost, Flem   +        
Clausocalanus mastigophorus (Claus)       +    
Calocalanus pavo Dana + + + + +  
Calocalanus plumulosus Claus         +  
Calocalanus pavoninus Farr. +   +      
Calocalanus plumatus Shmel.   +   +    
Calocalanus(tenuis?) Farr.     +      
Microcalanus pusillus Sars           N
Ctenocalanus vanus Giesbr         + +
Aetideus armatus Boeck           N
Euchaeta marina Prestandrea           N
Phaenna spinifera Claus         +  
Scolecithrix danae Lubb   +        
Temora stylifera Dana       +    
Metridia lucens Boeck           N
Pleuromamma abdominalis Lubb       +    
Pleuromamma gracilis Claus       +   +
Pleuromamma sp.   +        
Centropages typicus Kroyri       +   +
Lucicutia flavicornis Claus     +      
Lucicutia gemina Farr       +    
Euterpina acutifrons Claus + + + +    
Candacia athiopica Dana   +        
Micsetelia gracilis Dana + + + +   +
Macrocetelia gracilis Dana   +        
Paroithona parvula Farr.         +  
Oithona sp.   + +     +
Oncaea obscura Farr.           N
Oncaea minuta Gieshr. + + + +   +
Oncaea dentipes Giesbr. + + + +   +
Oncaea similis Sars   + + +    
Oncaea media Giesbr.   +        
Oncaea subtilis Giesbr.   +        
Oncaea curva Sars   +        
Oncaea conifera Giesbr. +   + + +  
Oncaea mediterranea Claus +   + + +  
Oncaea  subtilis Giesbr.         +  
Oncaea venusta Philippi         +  
Corycaeus furcifer Claus + + +   +  
Corycaeus latus Dana   +   +    
Corycaeus typicus Kroger +   + +    
Corycaeus flaccus Giesbr. +   +      
Corycaeus clausi F. Dahl +   +      
Corycaeus limbatus Brady       +    
Corycaeus sp. +   + +    
Corycella gracilis Dana   +        
Corycella rostrata Claus       +    
Corycella sp. +   +      
59 species            

Recently also 46 species of  Mediterranean and Marmara Sea Copepoda were found in the southern Black Sea (Zagorognya et al, 1999, Tarkan et al., 2005). But all of these species may be considered as regular migrants arrived with Mediterranean water mass.

In July 2009 the compass jellyfish Chrysaora hysoscella was first recorded in pre-Bosporus area (Öztürk,Topaloglu, 2009 ). In 2000 it was recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Inanmaz et al., 2003) and now this stinging  species penetrated also into the Black Sea (Table 5, 6, upon request). This species has not been  threatened until recently. But since the beginning of 2000 it began to increase area of distribution. This species is planktophagous, consume  a range of planktonic animals (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn).

In the northeastern Black Sea off Gelendzhik three species of Mediterranean  Copepoda were recorded: Euchaeta marina, Rhyncalanus nasutus, Pleuromamma gracilis  and one species  Ostracoda: Philomedos globosa (pers. com. Musaeva E.I.). Euchaeta marina and Pleuromamma gracilis have already been found off Bosporus (Kovalev et al.,1998), two others were recorded for the first time. The most probably they were brought with ballast waters and did not established because they were not found in following years. 

In the coastal waters off the Crimea, the numbers of the non-native planktonic species observed keep increasing, all of Mediterranean origin. To date, it is not clear whether all will be capable of establishment. Among them, one finds the harpacticoids Amphiascus tenuiremis, A. parvus, Leptomesochra tenuicornis, Idyella palliduta, Ameiropsis reducta, and Proameira simplex, the planktonic copepods Oithona brevicornis, O. plumifera, O. setigera, Clausocalanus arcuicornis, and Scolecetrix sp., species of the fam. Clausidiidae were found off Crimea, Rhincalanus sp. and Oncaea minuta in the area of Smeinyi Island. Some species were represented by few specimens or single individuals (Zagorodnya & Kolesnikova, 2003). But we can not yet consider them as established species, although some of them were rather abundant.

But the species of Copepoda Oithona brevicornis, in 2005- 2006 developed in a very high abundance (in autumn 42667 ind.m-3 in central part of Sevastopol Bay. Since the middle of September until the end of 2006 O. brevicornis comprised from  70%  to 96-97%  of total mesozooplankton. Most probable this species is establishing now in the Black Sea  (Altukhov, Gubanova, 2006; Gubanova, Altukhov, 2007). O. brevicornis  was recorded also off Novorossiisk, Tuapse (Seliphonova, 2009). O. brevicornis might be brought from the  Mediterranean or the Adriatic Sea or from the north Atlantic Ocean. 

In May-June 2001 during cruise R/V Knorr 33 Mediterranean species of Copepoda were recorded in the western Black Sea. All of them were found in the Black Sea water with low salinity, but they were in good conditions (Seliphonova et al., 2008).

Thus now there are more and more Mediterranean subtropical species of mesozooplankton recorded in the Black Sea outside the Bosporus area which most probably were brought with ballast waters, but now we may consider only    Oithona brevicornis as established species (Table 5).

Benthos.

Via Bosporus penetrate many larvae of benthic animals. Some of them may find substratum and settle. If density of individuals is high they may create self-reproducing population.

Among representative of benthic species, which penetrated from the Mediterranean and now live in the near Bosporus area there are representatives Gastropoda. According to their origin they may be subdivided:  five Mediterranean  (Scissurella laevigata, Proneritula westerlundi, Alvania cimex, Doto paulinae, Calmella cavolinii), eleven  Mediterranean-boreal (Diodora graeca, Calliostoma granulatum, Aporrhais parpelicani, Turritella communis, Lunatia fusca, Trophonopsis muricata, Tritonalia erinacea, Tritia incrassata, Cylichnina cilindracea, Philine quadripartita, Leiostraca glabra), two - Mediterranean - Lusitanian (Payraudeutia intricata, Mitrella scripta) (Chukhchin, 1984).

Area of distribution twenty two species of Mediterranean Bivalvia is limited off Bosporus. Among Anisopoda also two species Leptochelia mergellinae Smith and Pontotanais borceai Bacescu occur off Bosporus (Makkaveeva, 1979)

Thirty  Mediterranean species of Polychaeta were recorded off Bosporus area. Among them even in 1960s two species Polychaeta  Sternaspis scutata , Ophiothrix tragilis were found. In addition among Mediterranean species, which occur in near Bosporus area of the Black Sea: three species Ophiuroidea, one species Echinoidea, one species  Asteroidea, one species Scaphopoda, eleven species Ostracoda, eight species Echinodermata ( Kiseleva, 1979).

The numbers of Mediterranean species off Bosporus area keep increasing.

During the last decades some species, which occurred earlier only off Bosporus area began penetrating into other areas of the Black Sea. Three  species of  Аmphipoda (Synchelidium maculatum, Megamphopus cornutus, Monoculodes gibbisus) were uncounted, which occurred only in near Bosporus area than were found  off western shores of Crimea and western shores of Caucuses.  Cirripedia  Verruca spengleri occurred previously also only off Bosporus was found in high abundance in the coastal area of Crimea even in 1950s (Aykubova, 1948).

Among similar species uncounted far from southern part of the Black Sea we may mention  Amphipoda   Colomastix pusilla recently found in the northwestern area of Crimea and near Kerch strait (Revkov et al., 2003). Representative of  Izopoda Gnathia bacescoi  also occurred only near Bosporus but since  1969 was recorded in the coastal area of Crimea (Zaitsev, Alexandrov, 1998). Representative Pantopoda Anoplodactylus petiolatus, recorded earlier off Bosporus in 1986 was uncounted in the coastal area of Crimea near Yalta at the depths 10-20 m  in community  Chamelea gallina (Sergeeva, 1992). Three species  Bivalvia, found earlier only off Bosporus were recorded in a few numbers in the coastal areas Crimea. Among them   Clausinella fasciata , Hiatella rugosa  (Revkov et al., 2003) and  Acanthocardia tuberculata were found in near Kerch straight (Terentev,1998).

In 2001 alive individuals of juveniles of one more gatropod Neptunea arthritica (Bernardi,1857) (Gastropoda, Buccinidae) were recorded in the Kamyshevaya Bay (Sevastopol, Crimea). Probably they were brought in an ova laying.  Neptunea arthritica is a Far East species, predator which can live in the brackish waters. Establishment of this species may create deteriorations in the benthic communities of the Black Sea (Shadrin et al., 2002).

In 2001 two new non-native   Bivalvia  species were found in the Odessa Bay: edible  Mytilus edulis and  Mytilus trossulus (Alexandrov, 2004).  Mytilus edulis probably was brought with ballast waters from the Mediterranean, where it use as aquaculture off the Spain and Italy shores or from the European shores where it cultivated as well. Probably Pacific species Mytilus trossulus was brought with ships from the Far East Russian areas, where it is a main cultivated species (Table 5) (Suprunov, Makarov,1990).

Thus numbers of Mediterranean benthic species in the near Bosporus area are increasing more than other groups and some of these species appeared also in the north-western Black Sea. Such systemic groups as Echenodermata are represented now more and more species (Table. 5).

 

Especially should be mentioned species, which arrived from the Adriatic Sea (Table 7), because conditions of the north Adriatic are more close to the Black Sea. There are only few of them: Anadara   inaequivalvis and Crassostrea gigas. Both of them are not native for the Adriatic Sea.  Anadara inaequivalvis was brought to the Adriatic Sea from the coastal area of Philippine Islands. After arrival into the Black Sea   Anadara   inaequivalvis has become a natural wide spread component of the coastal biocoenoses of the Black Sea. Crassostrea gigas  entered the Black Sea from the Adriatic, but it was brought there from the Japan Sea (Skarlato & Starobogatov, 1972) (Table 7). It is occur in a few numbers. In addition  Crassostrea gigas has been tried to  cultivate in oyster farms in the northeastern Black Sea with usage special methodology (Zolotarev, 1996).

Macrophytes

The list of macrophytes of the Black Sea published in 1975, and the list after 1975, shows 38 additions. The most significant change is the almost twofold increase in the number of Cladophora, Ulva, Ceramium, Polysiphonia, Cystoseira and Sargassum; many of them play a key role in the bottom communities of the Mediterranean (26 species) (Table 3). Most are thermophilic and indicators of the transition zone between the boreal and tropical domains (Milchakova, 2002).

The greatest number of species has probably penetrated with currents, and became established in near-shore water of the Anatolian coast. Their proportion reaches 26% of the total number of macrophytes. Among them, green Chlorophyceae, brown Fucophyceae, and red Rhodophyceae are represented by ten, five, and 12 species, respectively (Aysel, Erdugan, 1995).

Off the coasts of Rumania and Bulgaria, six new Cladophora, among other green algae were brought with ballast water but origin of them are uncertain (Bavaru et al.,1991; Milchakova, 2002).

In 1990, in Odessa Bay, the near-shore euryhaline brown Desmarestia viridis was found for the first time in the Black Sea. By winter 1994/1995, D. viridis had already become a mass species of the near-shore zone of the bay. In recent years, D. viridis has spread over the northwestern Black Sea (Minicheva, 2007). This species most probably was brought with shipping from north Atlantic, but it is also species which was introduced into the Mediterranean in the coastal zone of France (Minicheva & Eremenko, 1993).

Fishes

Some Mediterranean fishes perform regular feeding and/or spawning migrations to the Black Sea. This refers, first of all, to valuable large predator species: the MediterraneanAtlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus), the Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda (Bloch), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus), the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus (Linnaeus), and the Mediterranean mackerel S. japonicus colias Gmelin.

The swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnаeus, the blue-finned tuna Thunnus thynnus thynnus (Linnаeus), the Mediterranean picarel Spicara moena, and the European pilchard Sardina pilchardus used to visit and even spawn in the western and northwestern parts of the sea (Svetovidov, 1964, Gordina & Bagnyukova, 1992). In the 1970s1980s, the abundance of migrating species significantly decreased and most of the species virtually stopped entering the Black Sea. Meanwhile, during the recent years, the conditions for fattening have enhanced owing to increase in the stock of small pelagic fishes after the Berое ovata invasion and decreasing of  M.leidyi abundance. As a result, some Mediterranean species again appeared both in the western part of the sea (the  mackerels, the bonito, and the bluefish) (Abaza et al., 2006) and in its northwestern part (the horse mackerel, the bonito, the bluefish, the Mediterranean picarel Spicara moena (L), the European pilchard Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum), the green wrasse Labrus viridis (Linnaeus), and triplefin Tripterygion tripteronotus (Risso) (Boltachev, 2006). In addition, starting from 1999, their feeding area is expanded and new Mediterranean fish species appear; for example, in the near-shore waters off the Crimea, the dorado Sparus aurata  Linnaeus, the salema Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus), and the thick-lipped gray mullet Chelon (=Mugil) labrosus (Risso) appeared and intensely reproduced (Table 8, upon request) (Boltachev, 2006).

Previously, in contrast to the gilthead bream, the thick-lipped gray mullet has never been recorded in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. For the first time, a juvenile of Chelon labrosus was caught in October 1981 in Donzulav Bay. In October 1983, shoals of the thick-lipped gray mullet consisting of 1015 fishes were observed in the waters off Sevastopol (Salekhova, 1987).  Starting from 1999, the thick-lipped gray mullet has been repeatedly found in the areas off Sevastopol. A specimen of the salema off the Crimea was first noted in 1999 (Boltachev, 2006). At present, its abundance in this region is rapidly increasing.

The dorado can be often recorded as single specimens or minor shoals in Balaklava Bay and adjacent near-shore waters. Probably, the dorado and the salema may stay for overwintering now in the coastal waters off the Crimea (Boltachev, 2006).

The Mediterranean umbrine Umbrina cirrosa was once found in the Black Sea biospheric reserve in 1962 (Tkachenko, 1994). In summer 1999, one female with eggs was caught again in Pshada Bay (Pashkov, 2005).

All the above-listed species are not more than seasonal Mediterranean migrants rather than invaders into the Black Sea. Among the non-native species, three species of fishes previously not encountered in the Black Sea were found in the coastal waters of the Crimea. They include two specimens of the barracuda Sphyraena pinguis were caught with a bottom trawl in Balaklava Bay in August 1999. This is an IndianPacific species, which penetrated as a Lessepsian migrant via the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean including the Aegean Sea in 1931 and ultimately reaching the Black Sea.  This species is increasing area of distribution in the Mediterranean and became commercial species (Boltachev, 2009). According to first observation of Boltachev two caught individuals were identified as Sphyraena  obtusata as well, but after very detailed analyses they were determined as S. pinguis (Boltachev, 2009). Another IndianPacific species Sphyraena  obtusata is also Lessepsian migrant, penetrated into the Mediterranean recently only in 1992 (Table 9, upon request). This species is not abundant, occurs rare in the Mediterranean. A few individuals were found off Bosporus area (Ozturk, 2006).

A specimen of the northern blue whiting Micromecisthis poutassou 15.7 cm long was caught in January 1999 over a sea depth of 60 m off Balaklava (Crimea). It is a typical Atlanticboreal species widely spread in the Mediterranean basin including the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara; most probably, it penetrated from the Mediterranean Sea. Blue whiting  performs long-lasting migrations; it is known as a stenohaline eurythermal species dwelling at salinities no less than 33, but was first encountered at a salinity of 18. There are two ways of explanation of the appearance of the above two species in the Black Sea: fishes might migrate from the Sea of Marmara or the Mediterranean Sea or, which seems more probable, might be brought with ballast waters.

The third species is the coral-dwelling butterfly fish Heniochus acuminatus. A specimen 76 mm long was caught by a net in Balaklava Bay in October 2003. It is a typical tropical IndianPacific species and the conditions of Balaklava Bay are hardly favorable for it. This fish was most probably delivered with ballast waters (Boltachev, 2006).

During the recent years, in the waters off Rumania, centracant Centracanthus cirrus, which probably also penetrated from the Mediterranean Sea, was observed. To date, it has significantly increased its abundance and now represents a commercial fish in the littoral zone of Rumania (Abaza et al., 2006) and off Turkish coast (Ozturk, 2006). In the central part of the sea, its developing eggs were first found in June 1982 (Tzokur, 1988).

The golden goby Gobius auratus Risso, which was first found in the communities of near-shore macrophytes off the Crimea and in the 2000-s was found in the northeastern part of the sea may also be referred to Mediterranean invaders (Nadolinsky, 2004). Two more Mediterranean species of Gobiidae G.cruentatus and G. xanthocephalus were recorded recently off Crimea and  Turkish area (Boltachev,2006; Ozturk,2006).

Another indo-Pacific Gobiidae Tridentiger irigonocephalus was recorded off the Crimea and Turkish areas (Boltachev, 2009). Representative of Gobiidae are small near bottom species therefore they could be brought most probably with ballast waters, particularly in the case of Tridentiger irigonocephalus.

One more indo-Pacific species was recorded in the Turkish area of the Black Sea: half-smooth golden pufferfish Lagocephalus spadiceus in 2008 (Tuncer et al, 2008).

In addition during last yeas Mediterranean species Parablennius incognitus became common in Turkish area and appeared off Crimea (Ozturk, 2006; Boltachev, 2009, this volume). Among other species Syngnathus acus L. was recently found off Crimea (Boltachev, 2009, this volume). Its origin is not clear. Probably it was brought from the northern Atlantic Ocean with ballast waters.

Discussion.

Thus during second part of XX century the Black Sea became the main recipient area for non-native  temperate and warm water marine and brackish water species, which arrived from different donor areas. Most of  euryhaline and euryterm species of Atlantic origin became abundant, often created large populations. In their turn most of these established species affected all other seas of the Mediterranean basin and the Caspian Sea as a donor area (Shiganova and Dumont, 2009).

 Since the end of 1980 with the beginning of warm period more and more warm water species of different origin have established in the Black Sea.

During last decades a new trend has appeared. The Mediterranean species which have always penetrated into the Black Sea with Low Bosporus current and could live only off Bosporus area began to disperse with the currents and released with ballast waters in other areas of the Black Sea. Earlier they could not establish due to low temperature, particularly  in winter but now with increasing temperature the  share of these non-native species of a Mediterranean origin is gradually increasing over the recent years meanwhile and some  of these species have already established.

These organisms driven with currents and ballast waters represent phyto- and zooplankton, macrophytes, benthic or demersal organisms, and fishes. These species as a rule have subtropical and in some cases even tropical origin (Tables 1-9).  None of them became a mass species; their greater number still occur only in the near-Bosporus and southern parts of the Black Sea where salinity is higher. Selected species penetrated to the near-shore regions off Bulgaria, Rumania, and the Crimea also with currents, in the course of their migration, or with ship ballast waters  (Tables 10, 11, 12, upon request).

New event for the Black Sea became appearance of species of Indo-Pacific origin (Table 10). Some of them are Lessepsian migrants, which arrived to the Mediterranean than expanded from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea; others were brought with ballast waters.

Shift from fish to gelatinous plankton.

The most pronounced events were arrival of two warm water ctenophores: Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata into the Black Sea. First one affected all trophic web of ecosystem and became the main drivers of the Black Sea ecosystem functioning. The stocks of most of commercial fish greatly dropped (Shiganova et al., 2003; 2004). While the other one considerably recovered ecosystem for rather short period.  Mnemiopsis leidyi spread from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea with the Black Sea currents  and in some areas of Mediterranean with ballast waters (Shiganova et al., 2001, Shiganova, Maley, 2009, Galil et al., 2009; Boero et al. 2009; Fuentes et al. 2009). 

During last years new tendency appeared arrival gelatinous species from Mediterranean. Recently several  Mediterranean  jellyfishes penetrated first to the Sea of Marmara. Among them jellyfishes Chrysaora hysoscella, Cassiopea andromeda, Trachimedusa Liriope tetraphylla. In 2009  Chrysaora hysoscella  was recorded for the first time in the Istanbul Strait and Turkish part of the Black Sea (Öztürk  and Topaloglu, 2009). This is temperate planktivorous species and therefore we can not exclude that a new species  Chrysaora hysoscella  will establish in the Black Sea in favorable prey conditions of crustacean zooplankton if salinity will be tolerant for it. In 2007, the ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea (L. Agassiz 1860) was also recorded in the Turkish part of the Black Sea (Ozturk & Shiganova in press).

Northward extension, increase abundance and change phenology.

First of all significant range northward extensions have been recorded for the Mediterranean fishes, seasonal migrants in the Black Sea. Most of them were recorded earlier in the Black Sea as seasonal migrants but now they extended area of distribution in the Black Sea. Some of them have changed phenology: they used to spend short period of warm seasons in the Black Sea for spawning/ and feeding but now some of them stay longer in the Black Sea, intensively reproduce and even most probably stay for overwintering, what were not observed earlier (the dorado Sparus aurata, the salema Sarpa salpa ).

Arrival and establish of the Mediterranean species.

We may consider that nine Mediterranean species of fish were most probably established during last years in the Black Sea (Table 8). But we still can not consider most of phytoplankton and zooplankton species as established, which were recorded both in the southern and northwestern areas of the Black Sea. The main reasons are low salinity and cold winters. Among Copepoda only temperate Oithona brevicornis  could established. Among phytoplankton 11 species have established. There were mainly representative of Dinophyceae, which develop in spring and summer and most of them capable to produce cysts in unfavorable conditions.  Gymnodinium sanguineum belongs to the species, which lives also  in upwelling therefore tolerant to low temperatures (Table 3).

The most of benthic species and macrophytes may be considered as established species as in the southern Black Sea so in the other parts.

Thus there is a progressing trend of  arrival of Mediterranean species into the Black Sea both with the currents as natural expansion and with ballast waters.  Most of these species arrived in previous years as well but relatively low temperature and low salinity prevented their establishment. Now with rising temperature some species could establish. First of all benthic species that inhabit at the depths where salinity is higher, especially in the southern part of the Black Sea. Due to intensification of shipping, particularly between Mediterranean and Black sea countries (62% of vessels arrived in Novorossiysk harbor from the Mediterranean countries (Matishev et al., 2005) numbers of species released with ballast waters also increased.  Some of these species began to establish in the near ports areas.

Total numbers of Mediterranean species found only in the southern Black Sea comprised 240 species (Table 10). At present time it is difficult to determine exactly how many of them might be included in the list of establish species. We can consider as established among them 23 species of macrophytes. Zoobenthic species, which are most probably, would be established as well in future, we have not included in the list of established species. Numbers of species found in the northwestern and western Black Sea comprised 84 species. Among them we have included 33 species as established:    10 species  of zoobenthos, 11 species of phytoplankton, 3 species of microplankton (fam. Тintinnidae)  and 9 fish (Table 10-12).  This process ongoing and probably we have not taken into account some species which were recorded recently and locally.

In the Black Sea total established non-native species (without all near Bosporus Mediterranean species) from all areas comprised of 4, 1% of native biota (Fig.1). Established Mediterranean species with near Bosporus benthic species comprise 3, 1%  of total biota.

In  the Mediterranean Sea,  numbers of established non-native species ( 745 valid species or 963 in total) (Zenetos et al., 2005) comprise 6,2%, of native biota (about 12,000 species) , the numbers  of Lessepsian migrants comprise 3,2%. Therefore process expansion of tropical species into Mediterranean Sea almost equal to process of expansion of Mediterranean species into the Black Sea.

If we compare the Black Sea biodiversity with Mediterranean one, it decreases in about 3, 5 times. The numbers of establishes non-native species decrease in the same proportion in about 3,5 times for these seas.   So, the basin is capable to accept the numbers of non-native species in proportion equal natural biodiversity (Shiganova and Dumont, 2010).

The most eurihaline and euryterm non-native species from other areas spread or were brought  with ballast waters from the Black Sea into the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea where they could established. None of the Mediterranean species spread from the Black Sea farther to these seas. The only exception is 3 species of fam. Тintinnidae, which were found in the Sea of Azov.  The reason is a low salinity of these seas (low than 15, the boundary of mesohaline water, which is important for biota). 

Not all non-native Mediterranean species are harmful for the Black Sea ecosystem with exception gelatinous species.  The rising of the numbers of species, abundances and areas of distribution of gelatinous plankton both native and invaders are the most dramatic events for Mediterranean, Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Expansion of gelatinous species from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Marmara and after that farther to the Black Sea is particular threat for their ecosystems.  Continuation of expansion of aggressive the Black Sea invader Mnemiopsis leidyi in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea is also give particular concern. 

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Annex VI: Proposed new indicators from the Black Sea

In MSFD (ANNEX III) the important biological features of different communities are identified as follow: species composition, biomass and annual/seasonal variability. These classical indices, used in the BSIS as well, reflect the dynamics of community structure parameters. However, the main role of indicators of the marine environment is to reflect the quality of the environment based on the state of the object monitored.  Besides, the quality of marine|naval| environment|Wednesday| is directly related with the functioning of biological communities and indirectly with their structure. Therefore, it is recommendable to pay attention at functional parameters of biological communities as well, not only structural.

1. Macroalgae communities

Under the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 EU implementation in Greece, the monitoring of macroalgae is based on the concept of morphological and functional algal groups available in the sea. The species are divided into two Ecological State Groups (ESG). In the ESG I the thick leathery, the articulate upright calcareous and the crustose calcareous species are grouped. Most of them are k-selected species. In the ESG II the foliose, the filamentous and the coarsely branched upright species are grouped. Most of them are r-selected species (Orfanidis & al., 2001). This is an interesting and sensible approach as in this case, during monitoring of benthic macroalgae and angiosperms, it is easy to consider the algal morphological parameters which are related to the functioning of aquatic vegetation and correspondingly with water quality.

Black Sea S/Wp and S/Wcom indicators (Minicheva, Zotov et al. 2003) methodology of calculation can be provided upon request.

In the Black Sea specific morpho-functional indicators are used to identify the status of benthic communities and correspondingly water quality.

Macrophytobenthos morpho-functional indexes

Organization levels Specific surface indexes Surface indexes
Structure elements
Specific surface of the structure elements
(S/W)se
-
Thallus(single plant) Specific surface of the thallus(S/W)t -
Population Specific surface of the population(S/W)p Population surface indexSIp
Community Specific surface of the community(S/W)cm Community surface indexSIcm
Floristic grouping of the region Specific surface of the floristic grouping(S/W)fg Phytobentos surface indexSIphb
Taxonomic section  Specific surface of the taxonomic section(S/W)ts Taxonomic section surface indexSIts

They are based on the parameters of the aquatic vegetation surface, elaborated within the morpho-functional ecology (Minicheva, 1998), and have greater advantage in monitoring of water quality in cmparison with the approach used in Greece (functional groups, k-selected and r-selected species). The coefficients of specific surface for certain populations (S/Wp) and communities (S/Wcom) of macroalgae which reflect their ecological activity are easy to estimate using the methods developed (Minicheva, Zotov et al. 2003, Guideline available in the archive of the BSC). In clean oligotrophic ecosystems large perennial macroalgal forms with a small specific surface of thallus develop. Dominating communities in these conditions are species with S/Wp not exceeding 10-15 m2 kg-1. During intensive production processes in the ecosystem and a rise in the eutrophic level, a change in the vegetative structure occurs. Small, short-cycle, rarely branched species with high S/Wp coefficients exceeding 50-100 m2 kg-1 begin to prevail in the phytocoenoses. Correspondingly, the ecological activity of aquatic communities S/Wcom increases. The use of these indices in monitoring together with classical indices forseen in MSFD gives unbiased information on the state of marine coastal ecosystems and water quality (Fig.  ).

Fig.xxx. Trophic status of Black Sea coastal waters assessed on the basis of morphofunctional parameters of macroalgae (green eutrophic; blue-mesotrophic).

Recommendations:

        The indices of specific surfaces of algal populations (S/Wp) and communities (S/Wcom) should be included in assessments of GES.

        Data reporting Format and a relevant regional monitoring system for primary production communities (macroalgae, microalgae, angiosperms) should be accordingly developed and agreed.

Reference:

Orfanidis S., Panajotidis and Stamatis. 2001. Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: a marine benthic macrophytes-based model. Mediterranean Marine science, Vol.2/2, 45-65.

Minicheva G.G. The use of surface indices of benthic algae for express diagnosis of the trophic-saprobiont state of coastal ecosystems // Algologia 1998. V.8, №4. P. 419-427.

Minicheva G.G., Zotov A.B., Kosenko M.N. Methodical recommendationson the morpho-functional indexes define for unicellular and multicultural forms of aquatic vegetation// GEF, UNDP. Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project.   Odessa, 2003 - 32 p.

2. Fishery Indicator Fatness of sprat (G. Shulman, 2009)

The level of fat reserves that fish accumulate to the end of their feeding period is an integrated indicator of their food supply (Shulman, 1974). The degree of fat content in mass fish species (as sprat  Sprattus sprattus phalericus is in the Black Sea) can serve also as an indicator of ecosystem condition (Shulman, Love, 1999). Therefore, estimating the quantity of the fat accumulated by sprat during its feeding period, it is possible to characterize not only the present state of this species but also the condition of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem as a whole. Moreover, the results of monitoring of the fat contents in Black Sea sprat that is carried out more than 40 years, allow to interpret the long-term dynamics of this indicator in connection to environmental changes (Shulman et al., 1994, 2005). The indicator of fat content (FCI) in sprat can be used also to the forecasting its stock conditions and school formations (Minyuk et al., 1997).

Method calculation methodology avialble, can be provided upon request

Example:

 
 


Fig. xxx. Main areas of sprat sampling locations in the Black Sea (Shulman et al., 2005). 1: North-Western part of the Black Sea (off the eastern Crimea); 2: Western part of the Sea (off Romania and Bulgaria); 3: Eastern part of the Sea (off Caucasus)

Fig. xxx. Long-term dynamics of the sprat fat content indicator (FCI) from 1960 to 2001 (after Shulman et al., 2005). Here, each data point represents average value of several observations from various locations, mainly from the area 1 (since 1994 the data only from the area 1 were accessible). Solid line shows mean long-term value of the FCI, dashed lines indicate standard deviations ( SD) of the FCI.

References

Minyuk G. S., Shulman G. E., Shchepkin V. Ya., Yuneva T. V. (1997). Black Sea sprat: the relationship between lipid dynamics, biology and fishery. Ekosi-Hydrophysica, Sevastopol, Ukraine. (in Russian)

Shulman G. E. (1974). Life cycles of fish. Physiology and biochemistry. Hulsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Shulman G. E., Chashchin A. K., Minyuk G. S., Shchepkin V. Ya., Nikolsky V. N., Dobrovolov I. S., Dobrovolova S. G., Zhigunenko A. S. (1994). Long-term monitoring of Black Sea sprat condition. Doklady Akademii Nauk, 335, 124126. (in Russian)

Shulman G. E., Love R. M. (1999). The Biochemical Ecology of Marine Fishes. In: Advances in marine biology, vol. 36, Academic Press, London.

Shulman G. E, Nikolsky V. N, Yuneva T. V., Minyuk G. S., Shchepkin V. Ya., Shchepkina A. M, Ivleva E. V., Yunev O. A., Dobrovolov I. S., Bingel F., Kideys A. E. (2005). Fat content of Black Sea sprat as an indicator of fish and ecosystem condition. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser., 293, 201212.

 

Annex VII: Forward Looking at MSFD (Annex I)

 

The Annex provides information on the availability of BS data for assessments envisaged in the MSFD, complimenting Table 13.

 

Descriptor 1: Biological diversity is maintained. The quality and occurrence of habitats and the distribution and abundance of species are in line with prevailing physiographic, geographic and climatic conditions.

Progress towards GES for this descriptor must address four ecological levels: ecosystem, landscape, habitat/community and species. For assessment at the levels of habitat/community and species, it is not required to use all criteria for each species and habitat/community type to be assessed. To support a holistic and adaptive management of human activities based on the ecosystem approach, a risk-based selection is to be applied, to ensure that the assessment and monitoring required is effective and efficient.

At species level

Taking into account Annex III, a set of relevant species types are to be drawn up for each region/sub-region. Sub-species and populations are to be assessed separately where the initial assessment identifies them as being at risk of not meeting targets for GES.

MSFD Black Sea region
Species distribution: Distributional range (1.1), distributional pattern (1.2) and area covered by the species (for sessile/attached species) (1.3)   Data available, mostly outside of BSIS. Maps of selected commercial species distribution are available in BSIS.
Population size: Population biomass (1.4) and Population abundance (1.5)   Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Population condition: Population demography (e.g. body size or age class structure, sex ratio, fecundity rates, survival/mortality rates) (1.6), population genetic structure (1.7), population health (1.8.), inter and intra-specific relationships (1.9)   Data available, not reported to BSIS
Habitat distribution, extent and condition: Habitat distributional range (1.10), Habitat distributional pattern (1.11), Habitat extent (1.12). The habitat condition relates to the physical, hydrological and chemical conditions (1.13).    Data available, not reported to BSIS

At habitats/communities level 

This level ensures the organisation of complex associations of species (in benthic and plankton communities) into more manageable units. As a general rule, the habitat and its associated community are to be treated together. Taking into account Annex III, a set of relevant habitat types are to be drawn up for each region/sub-region.

MSFD Black Sea region
Habitat distribution: Distributional range (1.14) and distributional pattern (1.15)   Data available, not reported to BSIS. Mapping of habitats needs advancement.
Habitat extent: Areal extent of habitat (area covered) (1.16) and habitat volume (1.17)  Data available, not reported to BSIS.
Habitat condition: The habitat condition relates to the physical (structure and associated physical characteristics, including structuring species), hydrological and chemical conditions (1.18) Data available, not reported to BSIS
Community condition: species composition (1.19), relative abundance (1.20) and community biomass (1.21) functional traits (1.22) Data avialble, mostly outside of BSIS

 

Landscape level

Certain criteria are also relevant for assessment at landscape level wherever this is required, taken into account that a number of marine landscape features are listed for protection as habitats in the Habitats Directive and certain Conventions. The condition of the habitats and species in the landscape may change. For species, especially those which are mobile (associated with multiple habitats) and of functional importance (e.g. pelagic-benthic coupling, structuring) are to be considered in particular.

MSFD Black Sea region
Landscape distribution and extent: Distributional range and areal extent (1.23) Data available, not reported to BSIS
Landscape structure: Habitat composition,  cover and relative proportions (1.24) Data available, not reported to BSIS
Landscape condition: As for habitat condition and community condition, as appropriate (1.25) Data available, not reported to BSIS

Ecosystem level

Assessment at the level of species, habitat/community and landscape state provide the basis for assessment at the level of the ecosystem, in particular the ecosystem structure and ecosystem processes and functions. The regions and sub-regions, or appropriate subdivisions, provide suitable scales for this assessment. Certain aspects of ecosystem functioning and processes are provided by other descriptors (such as 4 and 6).

MSFD Black Sea region
Ecosystem structure: Composition and relative proportions of ecosystem components (habitats and species) (1.26)   Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Ecosystem processes and functions: Interactions between the structural components of the ecosystem (1.27).  Assessments can be provided (derived from data mostly outside of BSIS)

Descriptor 2: Non-indigenous species introduced by human activities are at levels that not adversely alter the ecosystem.

The identification of pathways and vectors is a prerequisite to effectively avoid that non indigenous species introduced as a result of human activities reach levels that adversely affect the ecosystems and to mitigate the impacts. This needs to be done in the initial assessment (Annex II, Table 2), bearing in mind that the presence of some non indigenous species may be the result of the introduction through human activities which are subject to regulation to assess and minimise their possible impact on aquatic ecosystems. This identification has also to be addressed in the establishment of environmental targets (Article 10), as the basis for management action in the programme of measures (Article 13). The appraisal of existing vectors also contributes to identifying important areas for prioritised monitoring.

Abundance and spreading of non-indigenous species, in particular invasive species

MSFD Black Sea region
Abundance and distribution in the wild of non-indigenous species and, in particular, invasive non indigenous species (2.1). Data avialble, mostly outside of BSIS
Spreading of non- indigenous species including, where appropriate and feasible, maps of colonies distinguishing as a result of primary introduction and secondary spread (2.2).  Data available, not reported to BSIS

Environmental impact of non-indigenous species

MSFD Black Sea region
Ratio between non-indigenous species and native species in some well studied taxonomic groups, e.g. fish, macroalgae, molluscs (2.3)  Not considered.
Magnitude of the impacts of non-indigenous species, in particular invasive species, on native communities, habitats and ecosystem (2.4). If sufficient information is available, where appropriately developed, the Biopollution Level (BPL) index (2.5) can be used to assess the environmental impact. Data available, not reported to BSIS. BPL index not considered.

Descriptor 3

Populations of all commercially exploited fish and shellfish are within safe biological limits, exhibiting a population age and size distribution that is indicative of a healthy stock.

Level of pressure of the fishing activity

The primary indicator for this criterion is Fishing mortality (F)(3.1). Achieving good environmental status requires that F values are equal to or lower than the level capable of producing Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) over the long term (FMSY).

F is estimated from appropriate analytical assessments based on the analysis of catch (to be taken as all removals from the stock, including discards and unaccounted catch) at age or at length and ancillary information. As regards the estimation of FMSY, simulation models should ideally be used to give the values of F that, with a high probability, would maximize the yield over a long period of time without undermining the stock structure and hence future yields under similar exploitation strategies. Where the knowledge of the population dynamics of the stock do not allow to carry out simulations, scientific judgement of F values associated to the yield-per-recruit curve (Y/R), combined with other information on the historical performance of the fishery or on the population dynamics of similar stocks, may indicate which values satisfy the MSY criterion.

MSFD Black Sea region
Fishing mortality (F)(3.1). Data avialble, see Annex IV of this report

Secondary indicators: If analytical assessments yielding values for F are not available, then a possible secondary indicator is the ratio between catch and a biomass index (hereinafter catch/biomass ratio) (3.2), where the biomass index is ideally taken from sources independent from the commercial fishing activity (e.g. catch rates from bottom trawl surveys, biomass estimates from acoustic surveys, biomass estimates from egg-surveys).

The value for the indicator that reflects MSY (Maximum Sustainable Yield) is to be determined by scientific judgement following analysis of the observed historical trends of the indicator combined with other information on the historical performance of the fishery. Where stock production-based assessments are available, the catch/biomass ratio yielding Maximum Sustainable Yield (FMSY) can be taken as indicative reference. Any observed value for catch/biomass ratio equal to or lower than the level reflecting MSY is considered to meet this criterion.

Alternatively to the catch/biomass ratio, secondary indicators may be developed on the basis of any other appropriate proxy for fishing mortality, adequately justified.

MSFD Black Sea region
Ratio between catch and a biomass index Data avialble, see Annex IV of this report

Reproductive capacity of the stock

The primary indicator is the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)(3.3). SSB is estimated from appropriate analytical assessments based on the analysis of catch at age or at length and ancillary information.

Where an analytical assessment allows the estimation of SSB, the reference value reflecting full reproductive capacity is SSBMSY, i.e., the spawning stock biomass that would achieve MSY under a fishing mortality equal to FMSY. Any observed SSB values equal to or greater than SSBMSY is considered to meet this criterion.

Where simulation models do not allow the estimation of a reliable value for SSBMSY, then the reference to be used for the purpose of this criterion is SSBpa, which is the minimum SSB value for which there is a high probability that the stock is able to replenish itself under the prevailing exploitation conditions. Any observed SSB values are to be equal to or greater than SSBpa.

 

MSFD Black Sea region
Spawning Stock Biomass Data avialble, see Annex IV of this report

Secondary indicators: If analytical assessments yielding values for SSB are not available, then the biomass indices taken from independent sources (see above)(3.4) can be used if these indices can be obtained for the fraction of the population that is sexually mature. Where, in absence of analytical assessments, abundance indices are chosen as indicator, then the abundance indices observed must be used when scientific judgement is able to determine, through detailed analysis of the historical trends of the indicator combined with other information on the historical performance of the fishery, that there is a high probability that the stock will be able to replenish itself under the prevailing exploitation conditions.

Population age and size distribution.

The main attribute is the relative abundance of older fish, expressed by indicators such as:

MSFD Black Sea region
The proportion of fish larger than a given length, e.g. the length at which 100% of the females are mature (3.5)  Not reported to BSIS, needs further investigation. Most probably available for commercial species.
The mean maximum length across all species found in research vessel surveys (3.6) Not reported to BSIS, needs further investigation. Most probably available for commercial species.
The 95% percentile of the fish length distribution observed in research vessel surveys (3.7) Not reported to BSIS, needs further investigation. Most probably available for commercial species.
Any other indicator reflecting numerically the relative abundance of old, large fish (3.8) Not reported to BSIS, needs further investigation. Most probably available for commercial species.

Secondary indicator: Size at full sexual maturation (3.9), which may reflect the extent of undesirable genetic effects of exploitation.

For the two sets of indicators (proportion of old fish and size at first sexual maturity), expert judgement is required for determining whether there is a high probability that the intrinsic genetic diversity of the stock will not be undermined. The expert judgement is to be made following an analysis of the time series available for the indicator, together with any other information on the biology of the species at stake.  

Given that the indicator "mean maximum length across all species" already incorporates information of a large set of fish and shellfish stocks, this criterion applies to the fish community rather than to individual stocks.

MSFD Black Sea region
Size at full sexual maturation (3.9) Not reported to BSIS, needs further investigation. Most probably available for commercial species.

Descriptor 4 - All elements of the marine food webs, to the extent that they are known, occur at normal abundance and diversity and levels capable of ensuring the long-term abundance of the species and the retention of their full reproductive capacity.

The species composition of food webs varies according to habitat and region, but the principles of energy transfer from sunlight and plants through successive trophic levels are the same.  The criteria integrate across a range of ecosystem properties and address the functional aspects of marine food webs, and need to be applied and developed further at appropriate region-specific scale. Criteria are proposed in relation to two major attributes.

Energy flows in food webs

Ratio of production or biomass between different trophic levels

Indicators aim at measuring the degree of energy flow between different trophic levels. Ratios between primary production and top level predators are to be analyzed and controlled in order to test the efficiency of energy transfer through the food-web and whether the long term viability of all components is secured.

Depending on data availability, appropriate specific ratios are to be further developed, relating primary production to demersal exploited fish biomass and to macrobenthos invertebrate biomass.

MSFD Black Sea region
Ratio of pelagic to demersal fish biomass and/or production(4.1) Data available
Ratio of macrobenthos invertebrate to demersal fish production or biomass (4.2) Not considered

Productivity (production per unit biomass) of  key species or groups

Predator performance reflects long-term viability of components. Adequate indicators are to be developed further to assess the performance of key predator species using their production per unit biomass (productivity), to summarise the main predator-prey processes in the part of the food web that they inhabit, using the experience in some sub-regions (e.g. North Sea) in selecting appropriate species (e.g. mammals, seabirds) (4.3).

If sufficient information is available, where appropriately developed, indicators such as the Marine Trophic Index can address the trophic relationships within the food web (4.4).  The diet composition of a species or group of species describes the relative abundance of prey in a food web and can be diagnostic of food web changes.

MSFD Black Sea region
Production per unit biomass Data available, not reported to BSIS
Marine Trophic Index Can be derived

 

Structure of food webs (size and abundance)

Proportion of selected species at the top of food webs

The rate of change in abundance of functionally important species will highlight important changes in food web structure. Indicators are to be developed for large fish (by weight) (4.5), using the experience in some sub-regions (e.g. North Sea).  For large fish, data can be used from fish monitoring surveys, on an annual basis, at the scale of a regional or subregional sea.

MSFD Black Sea region
Large fish (by weight) (4.5) Not considered

Abundance/distribution of key groups/species

Indicators describe abundance trends (4.6) to identify changes in population status potentially affecting food web status. Assessments are required at regular intervals, taking account of seasonal changes. Indicators are to be further developed at an appropriate scale, taking account of their importance to local and regional food webs. Particularly suitable groups/species in a region or sub-region include:

(i) biological groups with fast turnover rates (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, jellyfish, short-living pelagic fish, bacteria) that will respond quickly to ecosystem change and are useful as early warning indicators;

(ii) groups/species that are targeted by human activities;

(iii) habitat-defining groups/species (e.g. benthic fauna);

(iv) groups/species at the top of the food web (which may accumulate harmful substances or respond to cascading effects from ecosystem changes);

(v) groups/species that are tightly linked to other groups/species at another trophic level.

MSFD Black Sea region
Abundance trends (4.6) Data available for all gropus/species listed in (i) to (v), mostly outside of BSIS

Descriptor 5: Human-induced eutrophication is minimised, especially adverse effects thereof, such as losses in biodiversity, ecosystem degradation, harmful algae blooms and oxygen deficiency in bottom waters

Based on the Initial Assessment, a risk-based approach, incorporating the assessment for coastal and transitional waters under the Water Framework Directive (2000/60, annex V, 1.2.3 and 1.2.4), is to be followed to assess if eutrophication may hinder the achievement of GES. The first step is to analyse primary symptoms (5.1-5.5) and, if they indicate effects of nutrient enrichment, to add appropriate analyses of secondary symptoms (5.6-5.8). The final analysis to be made combines information on nutrient loads, analyses of a range of primary symptoms and, where ecologically relevant, of secondary symptoms.

MSFD Black Sea region
Nutrient loads Data available

Primary symptoms or directs effects of eutrophication

MSFD Black Sea region
Nutrients concentration in the water column (5.1) Data available
Deviate from normal proportion of nutrient ratios (Si:N:P) (e.g. Si is reduced in relation to other nutrients) (5.2)  Can be derived
Water transparency due to increase in suspended algae (5.3)  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Chlorophyll (concentration, spatial areas of high concentrations) (5.4)  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Increase of opportunistic macroalgae (e.g. can form blankets over the natural flora and suffocate benthic animals Data available, mostly outside of BSIS

 

Secondary symptoms or indirect effects of eutrophication

MSFD Black Sea region
Dissolved oxygen (5.6) Data available
Species shift in floristic composition (e.g. diatom:flagellate ratio, benthic to pelagic shifts, indicator species, harmful algae blooms). Annual bloom events of nuisance/toxic algal blooms. Annual to multi-year changes in frequency and/or duration of blooms. Changes in balance of diatoms/flagellates/cyanobacteria (5.7)  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Decrease in perennial seaweeds and seagrasses (5.8) Data available, mostly outside of BSIS

Descriptor 6 -  Sea-floor integrity is at a level that ensures that the structure and function of the ecosystems are safeguarded and benthic ecosystems, in particular, are not adversely affected.

The scale for assessing GES by this descriptor can be particular challenging because of the patchy features of some benthic ecosystems, both for natural and pressure aspects. Assessment of GES will have to integrate results from local scale, to much larger regional and sub-regional scales. Consideration is to be given also to the many differences between coastal and deeper-water benthic communities, where relevant space and time scales are greater. To deal with these, a risk-based approach to monitoring and assessment is to be followed, as mentioned in the general section.

MSFD Black Sea region
Differences between coastal and deeper-water benthic communities No deep water benthic communities

Substrate characteristics

Together with hydrodynamics, substrate is a main factor structuring benthic habitats, being a driver of patterns in diversity, function and integrity of benthic communities. Indirect indicators of functions (i.e. the benthic communities associated with the substrate) can be more practical to use in assessing GES than indicators of the substrate itself. The magnitude of impacts of human activities differs greatly between substrate types.

The complexity and properties of the physical structure of biogenic substrates, which tend to be the substrate most sensitive to physical disturbance, largely influence the associated flora and fauna. They provide three-dimensional habitat for a large variety of species. Ecological status of biogenic substrates is related to the preservation of their functions (i.e. shelter from predators, contribution to the material exchange at the sediment-water interface, energy input via photosynthesis by submerged vegetation in the photic zone). Modelling using a GIS platform can be used for mapping sea-floor integrity features, as long as the errors involved are properly assessed and acknowledged when applying the results.

 

MSFD Black Sea region
Type, abundance, biomass and areal extent of relevant biogenic substrate (6.1)   Not reported to BSIS, availability of data needs further investigation
Extent of the seabed affected by human activities (such as dredging, trawling or other alterations which may influence the substrate) for the different substrate types (6.2)  Not reported to BSIS, availability of data needs further investigation

 

Benthic community composition and functional traits

Methods already in use such as measures of species diversity, productivity (abundance, biomass), tolerance or sensitive taxa and taxocene dominance measures are to be applied.

When applying any index special attention is to be given to: i) distinct biogeographic regions, ii) different water depth habitat types, iii) different substrate type.

MSFD Black Sea region
Diversity and richness indices, based on species number and relative abundance in the benthic community (6.3)  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Presence of particularly sensitive or tolerant species (6.4)  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Use of indexes assessing functionality of the benthic system, such as the proportion of opportunistic to sensitive species (6.5) Data available, mostly outside of BSIS

Size-composition of benthic community

The size composition of a community, reflected by the proportion of the community comprised of small and large individuals, integrates information about processes underlying community dynamics such as productivity, mortality rate, and life history strategies of the benthic species in the area, viewed in aggregate. 

 

MSFD Black Sea region
Proportion of number or biomass of individuals above some specified length/size (6.6).  Data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Parameters (slope and intercept) of the size spectrum of the aggregate size composition data (6.7). No information

 

Oxygen concentrations in bottom water and/or upper sediment layer

Where ecologically relevant, assessments of oxygen concentration need to be conducted in critical areas and in critical seasons.

MSFD Black Sea region
Extent of area with spatial or temporal hypoxia (6.8)  Data available, not reported to BSIS
Ratio of oxygen/hydrogen sulphide concentration (6.9)  Data available, not reported to BSIS
Presence of benthic communities associated with low oxygen conditions (6.10) Data available. Note: the Black Sea has naturally low oxygen conditions.

Descriptor 7 - Permanent alteration of hydrographical conditions does not adversely affect marine ecosystems

Permanent alteration of hydrographical conditions can derive from activities such as constructions at sea, landfills and land claim, barrages, windmill farms and other renewable energy constructions, oil and gas platforms and bridges, dredging and deposition in the sea, but also from constructions on land with outlets into the sea e.g. power plants outfalls (Annex III, Table 2). Permanent alterations of the hydrographical conditions can consist in changes in the tidal (emergence) regime, current or wave action, salinity and temperature characteristics, water clarity, which can affect marine ecosystems.

A risk-based approach is to be used to assess the impact of activities which might permanently change the hydrographical conditions. Estimation of the expected hydrographical changes e.g. by modelling is the first step. At the large scale, tools such as strategic environmental assessment and maritime spatial planning can contribute to evaluate and assess the extent and cumulative impacts of such proposed activities. A more detailed assessment must be carried out in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) that precedes permission for a specific activity. An appropriate suite of indicators is to be selected which responds to the local pressures affecting the structure and function of the ecosystems. Already on that basis, measures are to be taken to minimize the effects on the ecosystem. If the activity is implemented, the monitoring programme to be carried out must keep track of changes in the ecosystems that may be affected by the hydrographical changes, through an appropriate set of indicators. If adversely affected, measures are to be taken and monitoring continued.

MSFD pressures Black Sea region
Constructions at sea, landfills and land claim, barrages, windmill farms and other renewable energy constructions, oil and gas platforms and bridges, dredging and deposition in the sea, constructions on land with outlets into the sea e.g. power plants outfalls (Annex III, Table 2). Permanent alterations of the hydrographical conditions, such as changes in the tidal (emergence) regime, current or wave action, salinity and temperature characteristics, water clarity, etc. can hardly be reported.   Land-based or sea-based sources of permanent hydrographical alterations are not reported to the BSC, EIA are not available in BSIS.  Further investigation for availability of data is needed. 

Respectively:

MSFD Black Sea region
Extent of area affected by the alteration (7.1)  No information, not reported to BSIS. Further investigation for availability of data is needed. 
Spatial extent of benthic habitat affected by the permanent alteration (7.2) 
Changes in benthic communities and or biomass production (7.3) 
Extent of area with spatial or temporal hypoxia (7.4) 
Presence of benthic communities associated with low oxygen conditions (7.5) 
Diversity and richness indices, based on species number and relative abundance in the benthic community (7.6) 
Presence of particularly sensitive or tolerant species (7.7) 
Changes in habitat functions due to altered hydrographical conditions (e.g. spawning areas, breeding and feeding areas and migration routes of fish, birds and mammals) (7.8). 

 

 

Descriptor 8: Concentrations of contaminants are at levels not giving rise to pollution effects.

The concentration of contaminants in the marine environment and their effects have to be considered to assess the status of the marine environment, taking to account the requirements and the results of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in coastal waters and applying a risk-based approach, driven by an assessment of threats to the ecosystem.

The Member States will consider the substances or group of substances that:

(i) have been identified as exceeding the relevant Ecological Quality Standards set for coastal or transitional water bodies adjacent to the marine region or subregion, be it in water, sediment or biota and/or

(ii) are included in the list of priority pollutants in Annex X of EC Directive 2000/60 and are discharged into the concerned marine region or subregion and/or

(iii) are pollutants under the terms of the Directive and  their discharges,  releases, losses or emissions are significant  in the marine region or subregion, including acute pollution events following accidents.

Progress towards good environmental status will depend on whether their presence in the marine environment is consistently decreasing for synthetic or priority substances, or is progressively stabilised at background values for natural ones, as well as on whether their biological effect are kept within acceptable limits.

MSFD Black Sea region
Concentration of contaminants in the marine environment (measured, where relevant, in the same matrix used for the assessment in coastal or transitional waters) (8.1)   Data available
Biological effects on the elements of concerned ecosystems, after having established at national, regional or subregional level (i) the appropriate taxonomic groups where the effects must be identified, taking into account their sensitivity towards the pollutant concerned and within them (ii) the nature of the effect to be assessed (8.2)  Not reported to BSIS, further investigation of availability of data needed
Occurrence and extent of acute pollution events (e.g. slicks from oil and oil products) and impact on biota physically affected by this pollution (8.3) Data on pollution events available, mostly outdise of BSIS. Impacts on biota data available, not reported to BSIS

Descriptor 9 - Contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption do not exceed levels established by Community legislation or other relevant standards

Member States are to monitor the presence in wild caught fish, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, roe and seaweed harvested in the different (sub) regions destined for human consumption for substances:

- for which maximum levels contained within products destined to human consumption are established at EU, regional, or national level, and/or

- referred to in descriptor 8, for which the predicted or measured environmental concentration is above the level where no biological effects appear.

The presence of the contaminants above is to be assessed against regulatory levels set for human consumption. This includes the performance of a trend analysis when either environmental concentration levels or biological effect levels are still in the process of being set.

Progress towards good environmental status will depend on whether the contaminants subject to surveillance are at levels below the levels established for human consumptions or showing a downward trend (for the contaminants for which regulatory levels are in the process of being set).

Levels, number and frequency of substances:

MSFD Black Sea region
Actual levels that have been detected (9.1) Scarce data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Number of contaminants for which exceeding levels have been detected (9.2)  Scarce data available, mostly outside of BSIS
Frequency where the regulatory levels are exceeded (9.3). Scarce data available, mostly outside of BSIS

Descriptor 10: Properties and quantities of marine litter do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment.

The distribution of litter is highly variable due to short time variations caused by meteorological and hydrodynamic events, including seasonal fluctuations. Such variability is to be taken into considerations when planning monitoring schemes. 

MSFD Black Sea region
Amount of visible litter in the marine and coastal environment  Not included in national monitoring systems. Data available from projects: see http://www.blacksea-commission.org/_publ-ML.asp
Degradation of litter at sea  No information
Impacts of litter on marine life.   Scarce data available, not reported to BSIS

Descriptor 11: Introduction of energy, including underwater noise, is at levels that do not adversely affect the marine environment.

As well as underwater noise, other forms of energy inputs can be distinguished such as electromagnetic fields from electricity cables and light at the surface. At this stage, and subject to further development, only the aspect of underwater noise has been developed further as a fist priority.

Noise input can occur at many scales of both space and time. Anthropogenic sounds may be of short duration (e.g. impulsive) or be long lasting (e.g. continuous). Higher frequency sounds transmit less well in the marine environment whereas lower frequency sounds can travel far.

Organisms that are exposed to sounds can be adversely affected over a short time-scale (acute effect) or a long time-scale (permanent or chronic effects). Adverse effects can be subtle (e.g. temporary harm to hearing, behavioural effects) or obvious (e.g. death in the worst case). With sufficient resources and research, it might be possible to develop indicators for these many facets of harm from energy input; however the initial indicators described below (pressure indicators) focus on sounds that affect relatively broad areas rather than sounds that affect only local parts of the marine environment.

 

MSFD Black Sea region
Distribution in time and place of loud, low and mid frequency impulsive sounds  No information, needs further investigation
Continuous low frequency sound  No information, needs further investigation

 



[1] A full report on the investigations undertaken in 2007-2009 to trace the impact of the Kerch accident is available.

[2] In this Report, in particular in Annex VII, we have used the DRAFT criteria for the GES descriptors in the MSFDs Annex I derived by the MSFD CIS WG GES (as included in the Draft EC Decision, cf. http://www.endseurope.com/docs/100608a.doc). The final date for the production of this Report was earlier than the adoption of the Criteria in Council.

[3] A forward-looking component with regards to the additional monitoring and assessments required in general terms for the implementation of the MSFD.

[4] Sources used outside of BSIMAP: http://www.fao.org/; www.fishbase.org; http://www.seaaroundus.org/lme/62.aspx

[6] Bathing Waters are under the responsibility of Ministries of Health and reported accordingly. Fishery is under responsibilities of Ministries of Agriculture/relevant Agencies. In Russian Federation the monitoring system is very complicated (details are provided further).

[7] The BSC PS checks the data submitted to  BSIS and requires additional quality checks where necessary.

[8] Among all the numerous projects carried out in the Black Sea region in 2000-2010 we chose those which had cruises or created data bases (to the best of our knowledge)

[9] GT is a unitless index related to a ship's overall internal volume.

[10] Length overall